In recent years, Carbon Capture and Storage (Sequestration) (CCS) has been proposed as a potential method to allow the continued use of fossil-fuelled power stations whilst preventing emissions of CO 2 from reaching the atmosphere. Gas, coal (and biomass)-fired power stations can respond to changes in demand more readily than many other sources of electricity production, hence the importance of retaining them as an option in the energy mix. Here, we review the leading CO 2 capture technologies, available in the short and long term, and their technological maturity, before discussing CO 2 transport and storage. Current pilot plants and demonstrations are highlighted, as is the importance of optimising the CCS system as a whole. Other topics briefly discussed include the viability of both the capture of CO 2 from the air and CO 2 reutilisation as climate change mitigation strategies. Finally, we discuss the economic and legal aspects of CCS.
Network models that represent the void space of a rock by a lattice of pores connected by throats can predict relative permeability once the pore geometry and wettability are known. Micro-computerized-tomography scanning provides a three-dimensional image of the pore space. However, these images cannot be directly input into network models. In this paper a modified maximal ball algorithm, extending the work of Silin and Patzek [D. Silin and T. Patzek, Physica A 371, 336 (2006)], is developed to extract simplified networks of pores and throats with parametrized geometry and interconnectivity from images of the pore space. The parameters of the pore networks, such as coordination number, and pore and throat size distributions are computed and compared to benchmark data from networks extracted by other methods, experimental data, and direct computation of permeability and formation factor on the underlying images. Good agreement is reached in most cases allowing networks derived from a wide variety of rock types to be used for predictive modeling.
 We show how to predict flow properties for a variety of porous media using pore-scale modeling with geologically realistic networks. Starting with a network representation of Berea sandstone, the pore size distribution is adjusted to match capillary pressure for different media, keeping the rank order of pore sizes and the network topology fixed. Then predictions of single and multiphase properties are made with no further adjustment of the model. We successfully predict relative permeability and oil recovery for water wet, oil wet, and mixed wet data sets. For water flooding we introduce a method for assigning contact angles to match measured wettability indices. The aim of this work is not simply to match experiments but to use easily acquired data to predict difficult to measure properties. Furthermore, the variation of these properties in the field, due to wettability trends and different pore structures, can now be predicted reliably.
 Relative permeabilities are the key descriptors in classical formulations of multiphase flow in porous media. Experimental evidence and an analysis of pore-scale physics demonstrate conclusively that relative permeabilities are not single functions of fluid saturations and that they display strong hysteresis effects. In this paper, we evaluate the relevance of relative permeability hysteresis when modeling geological CO 2 sequestration processes. Here we concentrate on CO 2 injection in saline aquifers. In this setting the CO 2 is the nonwetting phase, and capillary trapping of the CO 2 is an essential mechanism after the injection phase during the lateral and upward migration of the CO 2 plume. We demonstrate the importance of accounting for CO 2 trapping in the relative permeability model for predicting the distribution and mobility of CO 2 in the formation. We conclude that modeling of relative permeability hysteresis is required to assess accurately the amount of CO 2 that is immobilized by capillary trapping and therefore is not available to leak. We also demonstrate how the mechanism of capillary trapping can be exploited (e.g., by controlling the injection rate or alternating water and CO 2 injection) to improve the overall effectiveness of the injection project.
Hydrocarbon production, gas recovery from shale, CO2 storage and water management have a common scientific underpinning: multiphase flow in porous media. This book provides a fundamental description of multiphase flow through porous rock, with emphasis on the understanding of displacement processes at the pore, or micron, scale. Fundamental equations and principal concepts using energy, momentum, and mass balance are developed, and the latest developments in high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and associated modelling are explored. The treatment is pedagogical, developing sound physical principles to predict flow and recovery through complex rock structures, while providing a review of the recent literature. This systematic approach makes it an excellent reference for those who are new to the field. Inspired by recent research, and based on courses taught to thousands of students and professionals from around the world, it provides the scientific background necessary for a quantitative assessment of multiphase subsurface flow processes, and is ideal for hydrology and environmental engineering students, as well as professionals in the hydrocarbon, water and carbon storage industries.
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