The DØ experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to DØ.
The sympathetic underactivity hypothesis of obesity causation now looks untenable, as based on measures of noradrenaline spillover, sympathetic nervous system activity was normal for the whole body and increased for the kidneys; the low sympathetic activity in the heart would have only a trifling impact on total energy balance. The increase in renal sympathetic activity in obesity may possibly be a necessary cause for the development of hypertension in obese individuals, although clearly not a sufficient cause, being present in both normotensive and hypertensive obese individuals. The discriminating feature of obesity-related hypertension was an absence of the suppression of the cardiac sympathetic outflow seen in normotensive obese individuals. Sympathetic nervous changes in obesity-related hypertension conformed rather closely to those expected from the Landsberg hypothesis.
Regional SNS activity is heterogeneous in the obese state. Important regional alterations, which may be clinically relevant, occur in the absence of changes in global indices of sympathetic nervous function. The enhanced renal NE spillover in obesity may have implications for the development of hypertension in this group, whereas the low cardiac sympathetic tone would be expected to be cardioprotective. Enhanced visceral oxygen consumption evident in the kidneys and hepatomesenteric circulation in proportion to body mass contributes to the greater resting oxygen consumption in obesity.
Objectives To investigate the sociodemographic patterning of non-communicable disease risk factors in rural India. Design Cross sectional study. Setting About 1600 villages from 18 states in India. Most were from four large states due to a convenience sampling strategy. Participants 1983 (31% women) people aged 20-69 years (49% response rate). Main outcome measures Prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol use, low fruit and vegetable intake, low physical activity, obesity, central adiposity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, and underweight. Results Prevalence of most risk factors increased with age. Tobacco and alcohol use, low intake of fruit and vegetables, and underweight were more common in lower socioeconomic positions; whereas obesity, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes (men only) and hypertension (women only) were more prevalent in higher socioeconomic positions. For example, 37% (95% CI 30% to 44%) of men smoked tobacco in the lowest socioeconomic group compared with 15% (12% to 17%) in the highest, while 35% (30% to 40%) of women in the highest socioeconomic group were obese compared with 13% (7% to 19%) in the lowest. The age standardised prevalence of some risk factors was: tobacco use (40% (37% to 42%) men, 4% (3% to 6%) women); low fruit and vegetable intake (69% (66% to 71%) men, 75% (71% to 78%) women); obesity (19% (17% to 21%) men, 28% (24% to 31%) women); dyslipidaemia (33% (31% to 36%) men, 35% (31% to 38%) women); hypertension (20% (18% to 22%) men, 22% (19% to 25%) women); diabetes (6% (5% to 7%) men, 5% (4% to 7%) women); and underweight (21% (19% to 23%) men, 18% (15% to 21%) women). Risk factors were generally more prevalent in south Indians compared with north Indians. For example, the prevalence of dyslipidaemia was 21% (17% to 33%) in north Indian men compared with 33% (29% to 38%) in south Indian men, while the prevalence of obesity was 13% (9% to 17%) in north Indian women compared with 24% (19% to 30%) in south Indian women.
ConclusionsThe prevalence of most risk factors was generally high across a range of sociodemographic groups in this sample of rural villagers in India; in particular, the prevalence of tobacco use in men and obesity in women was striking. However, given the limitations of the study (convenience sampling design and low response rate), cautious interpretation of the results is warranted. These data highlight the need for careful monitoring and control of non-communicable disease risk factors in rural areas of India.
INTRODUCTIONThe current epidemic of non-communicable diseases in India is attributed to increased longevity and lifestyle changes resulting from urbanisation.1 2 However, recent data suggest that non-communicable diseases are already the commonest cause of death in some parts of rural India.  This is plausible as, apart from improvements in life expectancy, the greater interconnectedness increasingly allows rural populations to adopt urban lifestyles without migration to urban areas.  A rise in the prevalence of non-communicable dise...
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