Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus caused by phloem-limited bacteria, namely 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las), 'Candidatus Liberibacter africanus', and 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus'. Although there are no known HLB-resistant citrus species, studies have reported Poncirus trifoliata as being more tolerant. Assuming that callose deposition in the phloem of infected plants can inhibit translocation of photosynthetic products and cause starch accumulation, we compared callose deposition in petioles and starch accumulation in infected leaves of three genotypes (Citrus sinensis, C. sunki, and P. trifoliata) and 15 hybrids (C. sunki × P. trifoliata). Compared with the mock-inoculated plants, higher bacterial counts and greater accumulation of callose and starch were found in C. sinensis, C. sunki, and 10 of the hybrid plants. Lower titer and fewer metabolic changes due to Las infection were observed in P. trifoliata and in two Las-positive hybrids while three hybrids were Las-negative. Callose accumulation was linked to and correlated with genes involved in phloem functionality and starch accumulation was linked to up-regulation of genes involved in starch biosynthesis and repression of those related to starch breakdown. Lower expression of genes involved in phloem functionality in resistant and tolerant plants can partially explain the absence of distinct disease symptoms associated with starch accumulation that are usually observed in HLB-susceptible genotypes.
BackgroundCitrus breeding programs have many limitations associated with the species biology and physiology, requiring the incorporation of new biotechnological tools to provide new breeding possibilities. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers, combined with next-generation sequencing, have wide applicability in the construction of high-resolution genetic maps and in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. This study aimed to construct an integrated genetic map using full-sib progeny derived from Murcott tangor and Pera sweet orange and DArTseq™ molecular markers and to perform QTL mapping of twelve fruit quality traits. A controlled Murcott x Pera crossing was conducted at the Citrus Germplasm Repository at the Sylvio Moreira Citrus Centre of the Agronomic Institute (IAC) located in Cordeirópolis, SP, in 1997. In 2012, 278 F1 individuals out of a family of 312 confirmed hybrid individuals were analyzed for fruit traits and genotyped using the DArTseq markers. Using OneMap software to obtain the integrated genetic map, we considered only the DArT loci that showed no segregation deviation. The likelihood ratio and the genomic information from the available Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck genome were used to determine the linkage groups (LGs).ResultsThe resulting integrated map contained 661 markers in 13 LGs, with a genomic coverage of 2,774 cM and a mean density of 0.23 markers/cM. The groups were assigned to the nine Citrus haploid chromosomes; however, some of the chromosomes were represented by two LGs due the lack of information for a single integration, as in cases where markers segregated in a 3:1 fashion. A total of 19 QTLs were identified through composite interval mapping (CIM) of the 12 analyzed fruit characteristics: fruit diameter (cm), height (cm), height/diameter ratio, weight (g), rind thickness (cm), segments per fruit, total soluble solids (TSS, %), total titratable acidity (TTA, %), juice content (%), number of seeds, TSS/TTA ratio and number of fruits per box. The genomic sequence (pseudochromosomes) of C. sinensis was compared to the genetic map, and synteny was clearly identified. Further analysis of the map regions with the highest LOD scores enabled the identification of putative genes that could be associated with the fruit quality characteristics.ConclusionAn integrated linkage map of Murcott tangor and Pera sweet orange using DArTseq™ molecular markers was established and it was useful to perform QTL mapping of twelve fruit quality traits. The next generation sequences data allowed the comparison between the linkage map and the genomic sequence (pseudochromosomes) of C. sinensis and the identification of genes that may be responsible for phenotypic traits in Citrus. The obtained linkage map was used to assign sequences that had not been previously assigned to a position in the reference genome.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-017-3629-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Nearly 65,000 citrus EST (Expressed Sequence Tags) have been investigated using the CitEST project database. Microsatellites were investigated in the unigene sequences from Citrus spp. and Poncirus trifoliata. From these sequences, approximately 35% of the non-redundant ESTs contained SSRs. The frequencies of different SSR motifs were similar between Citrus spp and trifoliate orange. In general, mononucleotide repeats appeared to be the most abundant SSRs in the CitEST database, but we also identify di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-and hexanucleotide repeats. The AG/CT and AAG/CTT were the most common dinucleotide and trinucleotide motifs, with frequencies of 54.4% and 25.2%, respectively. Primer sequences flanking SSR motifs were successfully designed and synthesized. After in silico polymorphism analysis, a subset of sixty-eight primers was validated in different Citrus spp. and Poncirus trifoliata. PCR-amplification revealed polymorphism in citrus with all tested primer pairs and showed the potential of these markers for linkage mapping. Our study showed that the CitEST database can be exploited for the development of SSR markers that can amplify Citrus spp. and related genus for comparative mapping and other genetic analyses.
Huanglongbing (HLB), caused by the bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp., is currently one of the most serious diseases of citrus plants and has caused substantial economic losses. Thus far, there is no source of genetic resistance to HLB in the genus Citrus or its relatives. However, several studies have reported Poncirus trifoliata and some of its hybrids to be more tolerant to the disease. The main objective of this study was to report differences in the incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection in citrandarin plants, hybrids from Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki (Hayata) hort. ex Tanaka), and trifoliate orange Rubidoux (P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.)), after conducting an extensive survey under field conditions. These hybrid plants were established for approximately 7 years in an area with a high incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected plants. We selected two experimental areas (area A and area B), located approximately 10 m apart. Area A consists of Pera sweet orange (C. sinensis (L.) Osb.) grafted onto 56 different citrandarin rootstocks. Area B consists of citrandarin scions grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osb.) rootstock. Bacteria in the leaves and roots were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The incidence of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected plants was 92% in area A and 14% in area B. Because infected plants occurred in both areas, we examined whether the P. trifoliata hybrid rootstock influenced HLB development and also determined the distribution of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in Citrus tree tissues. Although this survey does not present evidence regarding the resistance of P. trifoliata and its hybrids in relation to bacteria or psyllids, future investigation, mainly using the most promising hybrids for response to 'Ca. L. asiaticus', will help us to understand the probable mechanism of defense or identifying compounds in P. trifoliata and its hybrids that are very important as strategy to combat HLB. Details of these results are presented and discussed in this article.
Obtaining new rootstocks that have resistance to biotic and abiotic factors is one of the main goals of breeding programs for citrus. This study evaluated the performance of 42 hybrids of Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tanaka) vs. Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux, as rootstock for Pera sweet orange. The experiment was conducted in Colômbia, São Paulo, Brazil, in randomized blocks with three replications in a spacing of 6.0 m x 3.5 m. The trees were seven years old and the experiment was conducted without irrigation. We quantified the variables height, diameter and canopy volume, and production of plants, besides the physico-chemical analysis of fruits. After the natural period of drought in the region, the trees were evaluated for resistance to drought, with scale ranging from 1 to 3. Plants were also evaluated for symptoms of citrus sudden death and compatibility canopy/rootstock. Differences were observed in height, diameter and canopy volume of Pera sweet orange grafted on 42 hybrids of Sunki mandarin x Poncirus trifoliata (TSxPT). Differences were observed in the physico-chemical characteristics of fruits of Pera sweet orange grafted on different hybrids TSxPT. Different degrees of drought tolerance were observed and six hybrids were resistant. The hybrids TSxPT 245 and 254 showed incompatibility with variety of Pera sweet orange.
BackgroundGummosis and root rot caused by Phytophthora are among the most economically important diseases in citrus. Four F1 resistant hybrids (Pool R), and four F1 susceptible hybrids (Pool S) to P. parasitica, were selected from a cross between susceptible Citrus sunki and resistant Poncirus trifoliata cv. Rubidoux. We investigated gene expression in pools of four resistant and four susceptible hybrids in comparison with their parents 48 hours after P. parasitica inoculation. We proposed that genes differentially expressed between resistant and susceptible parents and between their resistant and susceptible hybrids provide promising candidates for identifying transcripts involved in disease resistance. A microarray containing 62,876 UniGene transcripts selected from the CitEST database and prepared by NimbleGen Systems was used for analyzing global gene expression 48 hours after infection with P. parasitica.ResultsThree pairs of data comparisons (P. trifoliata/C. sunki, Pool R/C. sunki and Pool R/Pool S) were performed. With a filter of false-discovery rate less than 0.05 and fold change greater than 3.0, 21 UniGene transcripts common to the three pairwise comparative were found to be up-regulated, and 3 UniGene transcripts were down-regulated. Among them, our results indicated that the selected transcripts were probably involved in the whole process of plant defense responses to pathogen attack, including transcriptional regulation, signaling, activation of defense genes participating in HR, single dominant genes (R gene) such as TIR-NBS-LRR and RPS4 and switch of defense-related metabolism pathway. Differentially expressed genes were validated by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant plants and between inoculated and uninoculated control plantsConclusionsTwenty four UniGene transcripts were identified as candidate genes for Citrus response to P. parasitica. UniGene transcripts were likely to be involved in disease resistance, such as genes potentially involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, intracellular osmotic adjustment, signal transduction pathways of cell death, oxidative burst and defense gene expression. Furthermore, our microarray data suggest another type of resistance in Citrus-Phytophthora interaction conferred by single dominant genes (R gene) since we encountered two previously reported R genes (TIR-NBS-LRR and RPS4) upregulated in the resistant genotypes relative to susceptible. We identified 7 transcripts with homology in other plants but yet unclear functional characterization which are an interesting pool for further analyses and 3 transcripts where no significant similarity was found. This is the first microarray study addressing an evaluation of transcriptional changes in response to P. parasitica in Citrus.
Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS) involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming an import support in breeding programs of annual and perennial species. An huge information amount can be derivate from genome analysis. The use and benefit of such informations will depend on the genetic basis of the breeding program.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.