Gastric cancer with Laurèn diffuse types is increasing in the West. The raising trend is more evident when considering signet ring cells (SRC) histology. However, to control the biologic potential of this GC subtype, some hypotheses of tailored therapeutic strategies for SRC cancers have been made. A review of the literature was performed using the key words "signet ring cells" AND "gastric cancer". Results of literature review were descriptively reported. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), according to the Japanese extended criteria, could be a therapeutic option for early SRC tumours. However, according to the evidences from more recent studies, indications for ESD to these tumours types should be carefully considered. Concerning the optimal surgical treatment, considering the high lymphotropism and infiltrating behaviour of SRC histotype, the extension of gastric resection should be wider than for intestinal type cancer and laparoscopic surgery should be performed carefully. Moreover, D3 lymphadenectomy could provide a benefit in diffuse-type and SRC histology. The role of surgery in gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis is still debated and studies on this topic should stratify the good results according to GC histotype. Finally, despite the evidences of chemoresistance in SRC, ongoing randomized trials suggest that multimodal therapy could be the best treatment. Based on the assumption that SRC tumours have specific features, they deserve a specific multimodal treatment. However, a preliminary step to generate strong evidences in this field is the standardization of terminology used to define signet ring cells carcinoma.
Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the amount of signet ring cells (SRCs) affects clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of poorly cohesive (PC) gastric tumours.Study design: One hundred seventy-three patients with PC tumours treated at three European centres from 2004 to 2014 were reclassified in three categories: (a) pure SRC cancers (SRC1) (≥90% SRCs); (b) PC carcinoma with SRC component (SRC2) (>10%, <90% SRCs); (c) PC carcinoma not otherwise specified (SRC3) (≤10% SRCs).Results: The percentage of SRCs was inversely related to the pT stage (Spearman's ρ = −0.174, P < .001) and the number of positive nodes coded as a continuous variable (P = .009). Five year cancer-related survival was significantly higher (58%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 36%-75%) in SRC1 compared with SRC2 (39%, 95% CI: 28%-50%) and SRC3 (38%, 95% CI: 22%-53%), (P = .048). In multivariable analysis, the impact of PC categories on cancer-related survival was significant when controlling for sex, age, pT, pN, and curativity (hazard ratio[HR] of sSRC2 vs SRC1 = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.01-4.29, P = .046; HR of SRC3 vs SRC1 = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.05-5.41, P = .039). Conclusion:The percentage of SRCs was inversely related to tumour aggressiveness, with long-term survival significantly higher in SRC1 compared with SRC2 and SRC3 tumours. K E Y W O R D S poorly cohesive gastric cancer, pure histology, signet ring cell
Background The Esophagectomy Complications Consensus Group (ECCG) and the Dutch Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Audit (DUCA) have set standards in reporting outcomes after oesophagectomy. Reporting outcomes from selected high-volume centres or centralized national cancer programmes may not, however, be reflective of the true global prevalence of complications. This study aimed to compare complication rates after oesophagectomy from these existing sources with those of an unselected international cohort from the Oesophago-Gastric Anastomosis Audit (OGAA). Methods The OGAA was a prospective multicentre cohort study coordinated by the West Midlands Research Collaborative, and included patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer between April and December 2018, with 90 days of follow-up. Results The OGAA study included 2247 oesophagectomies across 137 hospitals in 41 countries. Comparisons with the ECCG and DUCA found differences in baseline demographics between the three cohorts, including age, ASA grade, and rates of chronic pulmonary disease. The OGAA had the lowest rates of neoadjuvant treatment (OGAA 75.1 per cent, ECCG 78.9 per cent, DUCA 93.5 per cent; P < 0.001). DUCA exhibited the highest rates of minimally invasive surgery (OGAA 57.2 per cent, ECCG 47.9 per cent, DUCA 85.8 per cent; P < 0.001). Overall complication rates were similar in the three cohorts (OGAA 63.6 per cent, ECCG 59.0 per cent, DUCA 62.2 per cent), with no statistically significant difference in Clavien–Dindo grades (P = 0.752). However, a significant difference in 30-day mortality was observed, with DUCA reporting the lowest rate (OGAA 3.2 per cent, ECCG 2.4 per cent, DUCA 1.7 per cent; P = 0.013). Conclusion Despite differences in rates of co-morbidities, oncological treatment strategies, and access to minimal-access surgery, overall complication rates were similar in the three cohorts.
Background Textbook outcome has been proposed as a tool for the assessment of oncological surgical care. However, an international assessment in patients undergoing oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer has not been reported. This study aimed to assess textbook outcome in an international setting. Methods Patients undergoing curative resection for oesophageal cancer were identified from the international Oesophagogastric Anastomosis Audit (OGAA) from April 2018 to December 2018. Textbook outcome was defined as the percentage of patients who underwent a complete tumour resection with at least 15 lymph nodes in the resected specimen and an uneventful postoperative course, without hospital readmission. A multivariable binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors independently associated with textbook outcome, and results are presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95 per cent confidence intervals (95 per cent c.i.). Results Of 2159 patients with oesophageal cancer, 39.7 per cent achieved a textbook outcome. The outcome parameter ‘no major postoperative complication’ had the greatest negative impact on a textbook outcome for patients with oesophageal cancer, compared to other textbook outcome parameters. Multivariable analysis identified male gender and increasing Charlson comorbidity index with a significantly lower likelihood of textbook outcome. Presence of 24-hour on-call rota for oesophageal surgeons (OR 2.05, 95 per cent c.i. 1.30 to 3.22; P = 0.002) and radiology (OR 1.54, 95 per cent c.i. 1.05 to 2.24; P = 0.027), total minimally invasive oesophagectomies (OR 1.63, 95 per cent c.i. 1.27 to 2.08; P < 0.001), and chest anastomosis above azygous (OR 2.17, 95 per cent c.i. 1.58 to 2.98; P < 0.001) were independently associated with a significantly increased likelihood of textbook outcome. Conclusion Textbook outcome is achieved in less than 40 per cent of patients having oesophagectomy for cancer. Improvements in centralization, hospital resources, access to minimal access surgery, and adoption of newer techniques for improving lymph node yield could improve textbook outcome.
Enhanced recovery after surgery programs provide a framework to standardize care processes and improve outcomes. The results of this multimodal and multidisciplinary approach have been beneficial across several surgical procedures in reducing morbidity and hospital stay without increasing readmissions.The implementation of these programs in esophagogastric cancer surgery has been challenging due to the complexity of both procedures and the high risk of complications, with most of the evidence coming from the East. Despite the limited evidence for ERAS in esophageal surgery in Western centers, systematic reviews and meta-analysis have confirmed that ERAS programs reduce pulmonary complications and hospital stay after esophagectomy without increasing readmissions. Single-center Western studies have shown that implementing gastrectomy ERAS protocols resulted in a reduction of the use of nasogastric tube and intrabdominal drains, accelerated advancement of diet and reduced length of stay, without increasing complications. Despite these beneficial outcomes, it has become clear that there has been wide heterogeneity and absence of standardization in the number and definition of the ERAS components. The development of ERAS consensus guidelines including procedure-specific components may reduce this variability.Regardless of growing evidence of effectiveness, adherence to ERAS protocols in esophagogastric surgery remains challenging and had great variability with a wide adherence rate (5.6-100%) for single item.As initial experiences have demonstrated to be so beneficial, an implementation of the protocols with multidisciplinary team engagement and feedback based on periodic audits is desirable. Pre-and posthabilitation are emerging concepts that are becoming relevant for the implementation of these protocols.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.