Vitamin E decreased the amount of ROS in stored RBCs. Because vitamin E acts on lipid oxidation, results suggest that protein oxidation should also be considered a key factor for erythrocyte elastic properties. Thus, further studies combining vitamin E with protein antioxidants deserve attention, aiming to better preserve overall stored RBC properties.
+ and CD25 + T cells in the peripheral blood of patients afflicted with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) -before and after treatment -and healthy controls. Peripheral blood was collected and transferred to cytometry tubes containing monoclonal antibodies specific for cell surface markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16 e CD25. The immunophenotypic and morphometric parameters of cells were determined by flow cytometry and the results demonstrated a significant increase in the number of T CD8 + cells after treatment, suggesting a cytotoxic T cell response. An increase in CD25 + T cells in patients with active ACL and after treatment was also observed, suggesting the participation of these cells in the modulation of the exacerbated effector response.
Objective: The relationship between the geographical space and the incidence of scorpion accidents in the context of vulnerability was questioned in the present study through the application of geoprocessing techniques. Methods: In order to recognize vulnerable groups, an ecological study was developed using spatial data analysis techniques of area. Results: A total of 631 cases of scorpion accidents occurred in Campina Grande/Paraíba/Brazil, with an incidence of 154.7 accidents/100,000 inhabitants and an average distance of 0.897 hm between the cases; thus, verifying the possible relationship between accidents and the vulnerability index. Conclusion: Social vulnerability was evidenced by the magnitude in scorpion accidents, considering a higher probability (of attacks) in the most vulnerable areas; therefore, it was possible to verify that the occurrence of scorpion accidents is strongly connected to social factors, and that neighborhoods that have a population with low purchasing power, low schooling and no infrastructure were the most affected.
Neonatal malnutrition focusing on critical periods of development promoted lower expression of iNOS, nitric oxide production, cell viability, and exacerbated reactive oxygen species production. The high levels of reactive oxygen species may favor the onset of serious and systemic infections with fatal outcome if associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Yeasts from the Candida parapsilosis complex are clinically relevant due to their high virulence and pathogenicity potential, such as adherence to epithelial cells and emission of filamentous structures, as well as their low susceptibility to antifungals. D-limonene, a natural compound, emerges as a promising alternative with previously described antibacterial, antiparasitic, and antifungal activity; however, its mechanisms of action and antivirulence activity against C. parapsilosis complex species have not been elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the antifungal and antivirulence action, as well as the mechanism of action of D-limonene against isolates from this complex. D-limonene exhibited relevant antifungal activity against C. parapsilosis complex yeasts, as well as excellent antivirulence activity by inhibiting yeast morphogenesis and adherence to the human epithelium. Furthermore, the apoptotic mechanism induced by this compound, which is not induced by oxidative stress, represents an important target for the development of new antifungal drugs.
The aim of this work was to define the population of regulatory T cells (Tregs) which are circulating in the blood of Leishmania infected individuals clinically displaying a lesion (active disease–AD) and sub‐clinical (SC) ones. We have individually collected blood samples, processed the PBMC and stained with fluorochrome‐conjugated antibodies against CD3, CD4, Foxp3, CD25, CTLA‐4, Ki‐67, CCR4, CCR5, and CCR7. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results suggest that CD25 and CTLA‐4 are upregulated in Tregs of AD patients when compared to SC and uninfected (UN) controls. Moreover, Tregs proliferate upon infection based on Ki‐67 nuclear antigen staining. Finally, we have observed that these Tregs of SC and AD patients upregulate CCR4, but not CCR5 and CCR7. There is an increase in the number of circulating Tregs in the blood of Leishmania infected individuals. These cells are potentially more suppressive based on the increased upregulation of CD25 and CTLA‐4 during clinical infection (AD) when compared to SC infection. Tregs of both SC and AD cohorts are proliferating and express CCR4, which potentially guide them to the skin, but do not upregulate CCR5 and CCR7.
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