The Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of Jaws (MRONJ) diagnosis process and its prevention play a role of great and rising importance, not only on the Quality of Life (QoL) of patients, but also on the decision-making process by the majority of dentists and oral surgeons involved in MRONJ prevention (primary and secondary). The present paper reports the update of the conclusions from the Consensus Conference—held at the Symposium of the Italian Society of Oral Pathology and Medicine (SIPMO) (20 October 2018, Ancona, Italy)—after the newest recommendations (2020) on MRONJ were published by two scientific societies (Italian Societies of Maxillofacial Surgery and Oral Pathology and Medicine, SICMF and SIPMO), written on the inputs of the experts of the Italian Allied Committee on ONJ (IAC-ONJ). The conference focused on the topic of MRONJ, and in particular on the common practices at risk of inappropriateness in MRONJ diagnosis and therapy, as well as on MRONJ prevention and the dental management of patients at risk of MRONJ. It is a matter of cancer and osteometabolic patients that are at risk since being exposed to several drugs with antiresorptive (i.e., bisphosphonates and denosumab) or, more recently, antiangiogenic activities. At the same time, the Conference traced for dentists and oral surgeons some easy applicable indications and procedures to reduce MRONJ onset risk and to diagnose it early. Continuous updating on these issues, so important for the patient community, is recommended.
An altered oral microbiota has been linked with the development of several oral diseases, such as dental caries, periodontal disease, and oral stomatitis. Moreover, poor oral health has been linked to head and neck cancer, particularly oral cancer. In recent years a growing number of studies indicate that oral microbiota could be involved in the development of primary tumours outside of head and neck region. The aim of this article is to review the recent studies based on high-throughput technology to present evidences of a relationship between oral microbiota and “non-head and neck tumours.” Oral dysbiosis seem to be more pronounced in patients with tumours of gastrointestinal tract, in particular oesophageal, gastric, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers, paving the way for developing specific oral microbiota test to allow early cancer detection. Regarding other tumour types, the results are promising but highly preliminary and still debated. Currently, there are several factors that limit the generalization of the results, such as the small sample size, the lack of adequate clinical information about patients, the different sequencing techniques used, and biological sample heterogeneity. Although only at the beginning, the analysis of oral microbiota could be the next step in the evolution of cancer therapy and will help clinicians to develop individualised approaches to cancer prevention and treatment.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common head and neck malignancy, and despite advances in cancer therapies, the overall 5-year survival rate has remained below 50% over the past decades. OSCC is typically preceded by potentially malignant disorders (PMD), but distinguishing high-risk from low-risk PMD is challenging. In the last years, several diagnostic methods as light-based detection systems (LBDS) have been proposed to facilitate the detection of OSCC and PMD. Furthermore, the recent evolution of nanotechnology may provide new opportunities to detect PMD and OSCC at an early stage. Indeed, several preclinical studies showed the potential of nanotechnology to enhance diagnostic accuracy. For these reasons, it is fundamental to conduct studies to evaluate the efficacy of nanotechnology implementation in LBDS. The aim of this article is to review the current literature on LBDS and to provide a summary of the sensitivity and specificity of each technique, and possible future applications of nanotechnologies. The LBDS showed great potential for screening and monitoring oral lesions, but there are several factors that hinder an extensive use of these devices. These devices seem to be useful in assessing lesion margins that must be biopsied. However, to date, conventional oral examination, and tissue biopsy remain the gold standard for OSCC diagnosis. The use of nanotechnologies could be the next step in the evolution of LBDS, thus providing devices that can help clinicians to detect and better monitor oral lesions.
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Aims One of the objectives of current research is to customise the treatment of cancer patients. The achievement of this objective requires stratification of patients based on the most significant prognostic factors. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prognostic value of the tumour–stroma ratio (TSR), defined as the proportion of tumour cells relative to surrounding stroma, in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), and to develop a prognostic nomogram based on the most significant clinicopathological features. Methods and results Clinicopathological data of 211 patients treated at ‘Ospedali Riuniti’ General Hospital (Ancona, Italy) for OTSCC were collected. One hundred and thirty‐nine patients were restaged according to the 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system. Evaluation of the TSR was performed on haematoxylin and eosin‐stained slides, and correlation with survival outcomes was evaluated. In addition, with the aim of integrating the independent value of the TSR with the 8th edition AJCC staging system, a prognostic nomogram for OTSCC has been developed. OTSCC with a low TSR (i.e. a high proportion of stroma and a low proportion of tumour cells) was shown to have negative prognostic value in terms of disease‐specific survival, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.883 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.033–3.432 (P = 0.039), and overall survival (HR = 1.747, 95% CI 0.967–3.154; P = 0.044), independently of other histological and clinical parameters. For the cohort of 139 patients restaged according to the 8th edition AJCC staging system, variables correlating with a poor prognosis were: the TSR, perineural invasion, and sex. The nomogram built on these parameters showed good predictive capacity, outperforming the 8th edition AJCC staging system in stratifying disease‐specific survival in OTSCC patients. Conclusions Including the TSR in the predictive model could improve risk stratification of OTSCC patients and aid in making treatment decisions.
A high level of unmet oral health needs is very common among elderly people. In a society that is getting older and that has been hit so hard by the coronavirus pandemic, the development of new strategies aimed at enhancing general and oral health status should be crucial in order to promote healthy aging. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the feasibility of Teledentistry in communities or in a domiciliary setting where elderly people live. A structured and systematic research was performed on the major electronic databases for studies published in English until 30 June 2020: the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. A total of 13 articles were identified through database searching using combinations of keywords. Out of 13 papers, eight abstracts were reviewed to assess if they were coherent with the aim of the study, and full texts were retrieved. After abstract reviews, seven articles were selected for closer inspection. Of these, six were assessed for eligibility. Four papers were aimed at assessing patients and health practitioners experiences about Teledentistry, three studies reported a cost analysis and cost description of Teledentistry in residential aged care facilities, and two studies investigated the feasibility and accuracy of Teledentistry for diagnosis dental pathology. The implementation of Teledentistry in residential aged care facilities and in home-assistance programs could be a viable tool for the management of oral care in people who cannot access dental care.
Objectives:Oral cancer represents one of the most common malignancies in humans. Its prognosis is still poor, despite the most recent improvements in therapies.An increasing attention is placed on the role of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in the tumour immunity and its potential function as a marker for tumour prognosis.Whether PD-L1 expression is a prognostic factor for the poor outcomes in oral squamous cell carcinoma is still controversial. This study aimed to investigate, through a meta-analysis, a potential correlation between PD-L1 expression and the prognostic outcomes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and methods:The studies were identified by searching PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science and were assessed by two of the authors. After the selection process, 11 articles met eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Quality assessment of studies was performed according to the REMARK guidelines, and the risk of biases across studies was investigated through Q and I 2 tests. Meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between the PD-L1 expression either overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), gender and lymph node metastasis. Results: A total of 1060 patients were analysed in the 11 studies included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis revealed that the expression of PD-L1 did not correlate with poor OS (HR, 0.60; 95% CI: [0.33, 1.10]; P = 0.10), DFS (HR, 0.62; 95% CI: [0.21, 1.88]; P = 0.40), DSS (HR, 2.05; 95% CI: [0.53, 7.86]; P = 0.29 and lymph node metastasis (HR, 1.15; 95% CI: [0.74, 1.81]; P = 0.53). Furthermore, results of the meta-analysis showed that high expression of PD-L1 is two times more frequent in female patients (OR, 0.5; 95% CI: [0.36, 0.69]; P < 0.0001) compared to males. For all the three outcomes analysed, a high rate of heterogeneity was detected (I 2 > 50%).
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