Psidium guajava (L.) belongs to the Myrtaceae family and it is an important fruit in tropical areas like India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and South America. The leaves of the guava plant have been studied for their health benefits which are attributed to their plethora of phytochemicals, such as quercetin, avicularin, apigenin, guaijaverin, kaempferol, hyperin, myricetin, gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, and caffeic acid. Extracts from guava leaves (GLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, lipid-lowering, and hepatoprotection activities. In the present review, we comprehensively present the nutritional profile and phytochemical profile of GLs. Further, various bioactivities of the GL extracts are also discussed critically. Considering the phytochemical profile and beneficial effects of GLs, they can potentially be used as an ingredient in the development of functional foods and pharmaceuticals. More detailed clinical trials need to be conducted to establish the efficacy of the GL extracts.
Mangifera indica L. belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae and is an important fruit from South and Southeast Asia. India, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Pakistan, Mexico, Brazil, Bangladesh, Nigeria, and the Philippines are among the top mango producer countries. Leaves of the mango plant have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a plethora of phytochemicals such as mangiferin, followed by phenolic acids, benzophenones, and other antioxidants such as flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The extracts from mango leaves (MLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-obesity, lipid-lowering, hepato-protection, and anti-diarrheal. In the present review, we have elaborated on the nutritional and phytochemical profile of the MLs. Further, various bioactivities of the ML extracts are also critically discussed. Considering the phytochemical profile and beneficial effects of the MLs, they can be used as a potential ingredient for the development of functional foods and pharmaceutical drugs. However, more detailed clinical trials still needed to be conducted for establishing the actual efficacy of the ML extracts.
As an antioxidant, lycopene has acquired importance as it prevents autoxidation of fats and related products. Tomatoes are an important agricultural product that is a great source of lycopene. It contains many vitamins and minerals, fiber, and carbohydrates and is associated with various positive effects on health. The antioxidant potential of tomatoes is substantially explained with lycopene compounds. Diet is a major risk factor for heart diseases which is shown as the most important cause of death in the world. It has been observed that the lycopene taken in the diet has positive effects in many stages of atherosclerosis. The serum lipid levels, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, blood pressure, and antioxidative potential are mainly affected by lycopene. These natural antioxidants, which can also enhance the nutritional value of foods, may lead to new ways if used in food preservation. In this review study, the antioxidant potential and cardiovascular protection mechanism of lycopene are discussed.
Daidzein is a phytoestrogen isoflavone found in soybeans and other legumes. The chemical composition of daidzein is analogous to mammalian estrogens, and it could be useful with a dual-directional purpose by substituting/hindering with estrogen and estrogen receptor (ER) complex. Hence, daidzein puts forth shielding effects against a great number of diseases, especially those associated with the control of estrogen, such as breast cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. However, daidzein also has other ER-independent biological activities, such as oxidative damage reduction acting as an antioxidant, immune regulator as an anti-inflammatory agent, and apoptosis regulation, directly linked to its potential anticancer effects. In this sense, the present review is aimed at providing a deepen analysis of daidzein pharmacodynamics and its implications in human health, from its best-known effects alleviating postmenopausal symptoms to its potential anticancer and antiaging properties.
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