If there are no clearly defined management procedures, medical waste may represent a source of serious health hazards. Medical waste management was evaluated at the three hospitals in the Nisava and Toplica district, in Serbia. All the stages of existing waste management (segregation, collection, storage, transportation and disposal of waste) were examined by interviewing the personnel involved in the management of waste. The generated waste was a mixture of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. The study found that waste management performance in this district was poor and that there were problems in every stage of management. The results indicate that the waste generation rate was 1.92 kg bed(-1) day(-1) and consisted of 98.7% general waste and 1.3% sharps. Inappropriate segregation practices were the biggest problem and led to increased quantities of general waste. There were no specific regulations for the segregation of the medical waste. None of the surveyed hospitals have a system to refine wastewater and there were no training courses about hospital waste management.
The aim of our study was (1) to test the possibilities of standardized questionnaires for burnout, quality of life, and work ability in Serbia by investigating interactions of these phenomena in food manufacturing workers in Serbia; and (2) to determine possible preventive measures. The study enrolled 489 food manufacturing workers in the region of Niš (Serbia) during the period from January 2008 to February 2009. We included three standardized questionnaires: for burnout (CBI), quality of life (ComQoL-A5), and the work ability index (WAI) in the Serbian language. The results of our study indicate high scores in personal (60.0) and work burnout (67.9), lower scores for objective (66.2%SM) and subjective quality of life in enrolled subjects (69.2%SM), and an excellent work ability index in most workers (65.8%). The questionnaires tested are reliable instruments in the Serbian region. Burnout, quality of life, and work ability are significantly interrelated categories in food manufacturing workers. There is a high degree of work burnout that has not yet been accompanied with significant impairment of quality of living and work ability in exposed workers. That is why a salutogenic approach in the prevention of this phenomenon, by health-promotion programs in the workplace, would be the method of choice for burnout improvement.
RationaleThe aim of this study was to determine the effects of indoor air pollution exposure on respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia.Materials and methodsThe study was carried out in 1,082 never-smoking females, aged 20-40 years, who were not occupationally exposed to indoor air pollution. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was assessed using the American Thoracic Society questionnaires. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis.ResultsA strong association was found between respiratory symptoms and indoor air pollution. The associations between home dampness and sinusitis and bronchitis were also found to be statistically significant.ConclusionsIndoor air pollution exposure is an important risk factor for respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia.
Rationale: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of indoor air pollution exposure on respiratory symptoms and illnesses in non-smoking women in Niš, Serbia. Materials and methods: The study was carried out in 1,082 never-smoking females, aged 20-40 years, who were not occupationally exposed to indoor air pollution. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was assessed using the American Thoracic Society questionnaires. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis. Results: A strong association was found between respiratory symptoms and indoor air pollution. The associations between home dampness and sinusitis and bronchitis were also found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: Indoor air pollution exposure is an important risk factor for respiratory symptoms and illnesses in nonsmoking women in Niš, Serbia.
Retinoids are natural and synthetic compounds related to retinoic acid that act through interaction with two basic types of nuclear receptors: retinoic acid receptors (RARalpha, RARbeta and RARgamma) and retinoid X receptors (RXRalpha, RXRbeta and RXRgamma) as ligand-activated, DNA-binding, transacting, transcription-modulating proteins involved in a general molecular mechanism responsible for transcriptional responses in target genes. Function of retinoids in organisms affecting broad spectrum of various biochemical and molecular biology reactions is unimaginable without fully functional nuclear receptors--retinoid inducible transcription factors. Retinoic acids exert tumour-suppressive activity due to their antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects. A number of novel retinoids and rexinoids acting through cognate nuclear receptors have been tested both in vitro and in vivo, using cell culture or animal models for breast cancer. This article briefly summarizes the role and properties of nuclear retinoid/rexinoid receptors as well as selected effects of retinoic acids or selected synthetic retinoids and rexinoids with respect to their potential use in chemoprevention of breast cancer.
Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to air pollution increases the risk for high blood pressure (BP). The aim of our study is to evaluate any effects in BP in citizens exposed to long-term ambient air pollution. The subjects are 1136 citizens, aged 18-70 years, living for more than 5 years in the same home in the areas with a different level of air pollution. The air concentrations of black smoke and sulfur dioxide were determined in the period from 2001 to 2011. We measured systolic and diastolic BP and heart rate. Multivariate methods were used in the analysis. Alcohol consumption had the greatest influence on the incidence of hypertension as a risk factor (RR: 3.461; 95% CI: 1.72-6.93) and age had the least (RR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.183-1.92). Exposure to air pollution increases risk for developing hypertension 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.46-4.49). Physical activity has proved to be statistically significant protective factor for the development of hypertension. Long-term exposure to low levels of main air pollutants is significantly associated with elevated risk of hypertension.
IntroductionRecent studies report that syncope is not a significant predictor of 30‐day mortality in pulmonary embolism (PE) patients, yet some data suggest sex‐related differences may be relevant.ObjectivesTo evaluate sex‐specific prediction significance of syncope for 30‐day mortality in PE patients.MethodsA multicentric, retrospective, observational, registry‐based study on consecutive PE patients was undertaken. Patients were allocated into either a men or a women group before comparisons were made between patients with syncope and those without syncope. A sex‐related prediction of the significance of syncope for 30‐day mortality was evaluated.ResultsOverall 588 patients [294 (50%) men and 294 (50%) women] were included within the study. Among men, patients with syncope were older and had significantly higher parameters of increased 30‐day mortality then patients without syncope. Within the same group, however, difference in the 30‐day mortality rate was not significant (log rank P = .942). In contrast to the men, fewer differences in admission characteristics were noticed among women, but those with syncope had significantly increased signs of the right ventricular dysfunction and increased 30‐day mortality rate, as compared with those without syncope (log rank P = .025). After adjustment for age in a Cox regression analysis, syncope was a significant predictor of 30‐day mortality in women (HR = 2.01, 95%CI 1.02‐3.95).ConclusionAlthough syncope is associated with other predictors of higher early mortality in both male and female PE patients, only in women it is a significant predictor of 30‐day mortality.
ACTA FACULTATIS MEDICAE NAISSENSISUDC:614.71:613.956 S U M M A R YIn the recent years the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been an important public health hazard, especially in Serbia, a country with too many smokers. A common component of tobacco smoke is particulate matter less than 10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ), which is considered to be the most dangerous air pollutant for health.The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between respiratory symptoms and illnesses in schoolchildren in relation to their environmental tobacco smoke exposure.We conducted an epidemiological study that included 708 participants (49.15 % male) aged 11-14 years from Niš, Serbia. The children were surveyed by original structured questionnaire, based on the instrument developed for similar investigations. Data about the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the last 12-month period of life and lifetime prevalence of respiratory illnesses were obtained. The questionnaire also included items about other indoor environmental determinants. Tobacco smoke was the most prevalent source of indoor air pollution at children's home (60.73%). We found a significant association between ETS exposure and increased prevalence of dyspnea, wheezing, bronchitis and asthma among children.It is necessary to inform parents in Serbia on the health effects of ETS exposure during childhood and to encourage them to change smoking habits in order to protect their children from ETS exposure at home.
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