Abstract-The feedback upon which operators in teleoperation tasks base their control actions differs substantially from the feedback to the driver of a vehicle. On the one hand, there is often a lack of sensory information; on the other hand, there is additional status information presented via the visual channel. Haptic feedback could be used to unload the visual channel and to compensate for the lack of feedback in other modalities. For collision avoidance, haptic feedback could provide repulsive forces via the control inceptor. Haptic feedback allows operators to interpret the repulsive forces as impedance to their control deflections when a potential for collision exists. Haptic information can be generated from an artificial force field (AFF) that maps environment constraints to repulsive forces. This paper describes the design and theoretical evaluation of a novel AFF, i.e., the parametric risk field, for teleoperation of an uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV). The field allows adjustments of the size, shape, and force gradient by means of parameter settings, which determine the sensitivity of the field. Computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the field for collision avoidance for various parameter settings. Results indicate that the novel AFF more effectively performs the collision avoidance function than potential fields known from literature. Because of its smaller size, the field yields lower repulsive forces, results in less force cancellation effects, and allows for larger UAV velocities. This indicates less operator control demand and more effective UAV operations, both expected to lead to lower operator workload, while, at the same time, increasing safety.
One of the most difficult aspects of manually controlled flight is the coupling between the control over the aircraft speed and altitude. These states cannot be changed independent of each other through the aircraft control devices, the elevator and the throttle. Rather, to effectively change an aircraft's speed and altitude, the controls have to be coordinated. The mediating mechanism that underlies the coordination of the controls is the management of the aircraft's energy state. This article shows that the abstraction hierarchy (AH; Rasmussen, 1986) framework can be effectively used to gain more insight into the underlying structure of the aircraft energy management problem. The derived AH representation is based on the analysis of the energy constraints on the control task. It reveals the levels of abstraction necessary to link the aircraft's physical controls to the speed and altitude goals and also how the aircraft energy is a critical mediating state of the control problem. Energy awareness can be increased by presenting explicit energy management information. The powerful and novel con-
Abstract-In a free-flight airspace environment, pilots have more freedom to choose user-preferred trajectories. An onboard pilot support system is needed that exploits travel freedom while maintaining spatial separation with other traffic. Ecological interface design is used to design an interface tool that assists pilots with the tactical planning of efficient conflict-free trajectories toward their destination. Desired pilot actions emerge from the visualization of workspace affordances in terms of a suitable description of aircraft (loco)motion. Traditional models and descriptions for aircraft motion cannot be applied efficiently for this purpose. Through functional modeling, more suitable locomotion models for trajectory planning are analyzed. As a result, a novel interface, the state vector envelope, is presented that is intended to provide the pilot with both low-level information, allowing direct action, and high-level information, allowing conflict understanding and situation awareness.Index Terms-Ecological interface design (EID), functional modeling, navigation interface, separation assistance.
In this paper, the effects of peripheral visual and physical motion cues on manual control of second-order roll dynamics are investigated. In particular, the differences between the use of these cues in compensatory targetfollowing and disturbance-rejection tasks are considered. Tracking performance, control activity, and measures of control behavior are determined from recent measurements and compared with results from an earlier experiment. Most previously reported effects of peripheral visual and physical motion cues in target following and disturbance rejection are confirmed. A comparison of tasks with varying levels of difficulty is found to reveal reduced effectiveness of peripheral visual and physical motion cues in the less difficult target-following tasks only. Observed differences in measured control behavior for target following and disturbance rejection are related to effective strategies for reducing tracking errors introduced by the forcing-function signals in both tasks
Advanced driving simulators aim at rendering the motion of a vehicle with maximum fidelity, which requires increased mechanical travel, size, and cost of the system. Motion cueing algorithms reduce the motion envelope by taking advantage of limitations in human motion perception, and the most commonly employed method is just to scale down the physical motion. However, little is known on the effects of motion scaling on motion perception and on actual driving performance. This paper presents the results of a European collaborative project, which explored different motion scale factors in a slalom driving task. Three state-of-the-art simulator systems were used, which were capable of generating displacements of several meters. The results of four comparable driving experiments, which were obtained with a total of 65 participants, indicate a preference for motion scale factors below 1, within a wide range of acceptable values (0.4-0.75). Very reduced or absent motion cues significantly degrade driving performance. Applications of this research are discussed for the design of motion systems and cueing algorithms for driving simulation.
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