Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of a mindfulness training psycho-educative program on impulsivity and aggression levels in a sample of high school students.Methods: A randomized controlled trial with pre-test–post-test measurements was applied to an experimental group and a control group (waiting list). The Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) Patton et al. (1995) and the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss and Perry, 1992) were used.Results: Statistical analyses showed a significant decrease in the levels of impulsivity and aggressiveness in the experimental group compared with the control group. These results have important implications for improving the level of academic engagement and self-efficacy of students and for reducing school failure.Conclusion: This is one of the first studies showing the effectiveness of mindfulness training at reducing impulsive and aggressive behaviors in the classroom. The efficacy of mindfulness-based programs is emphasized.
Caffeine used as a supplement has been shown to improve physical and cognitive performance in several sport modalities due to its effects on the central nervous system. This review assesses the direct effects of caffeine supplementation on performance in combat sports. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, relevant studies were identified through the Medline, Scopus and SPORTDiscus databases. Of 1053 search results, only 9 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, three studies detected no ergogenic effect of caffeine supplementation, while six studies did observe a significant positive effect. Supplementation with 3–6 mg/kg of caffeine was found to increase the glycolytic contribution to energy metabolism during the execution of real or simulated combats, as indicated by elevated blood lactate concentrations. Caffeine intake was also noted to improve levels of strength, power and upper arm muscular endurance. These effects were not paralleled by an increase in the exertion perceived by the athlete.
The aim of this study is, on the one hand, to find out if differences exist in emotional competence and secondary school students' perceptions of classroom climate according to gender and educational level and, on the other hand, to analyse the relationship between emotional competence, classroom climate and school achievement in secondary school students. The study advances the hypothesis that emotional competences and classroom climate are mediators in school achievement. For this purpose, 420 students from secondary and further education were selected with an average age of 14.29 ± 1.52.In emotional competence, the results showed differences according to gender and educational level, while in classroom climate, differences were only found according to educational level. The mediational analysis showed that classroom climate is an influential variable in the predictive value of emotional competence in relation to school achievement. Likewise, emotional competence acts as a mediating influence on classroom climate and school achievement. This study thus highlights the need to implement training processes to help teachers to promote positive socio-emotional contexts and programmes to develop students' emotional competence, which will improve their school achievement.
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