Canine trypanosomiasis, caused by protozoans of the genusTrypanosoma, is divided into two primary types: the American form (Chagas disease), due to Trypanosoma cruzi infection, and the African form (sleeping sickness or surra), provoked by Trypanosoma evansi. This disease was originally enzootic and affected only wild animals, including mammals and birds, which served as reservoirs. Later, it spread to domestic animals such as horses, cattle and dogs. The disease became a zoonosis when contact between rural inhabitants and naturalTrypanosoma foci occurred, due to ecological imbalances and increasing migration.Dogs are significantly involved in this context, because they are the main domestic animals and participate in the transmission and maintenance cycles of these parasites. This article reports etiological, epidemiological and public health aspects of canine trypanosomiasis, and the most important peculiarities of this zoonosis in dogs.
Introduction. American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, is a zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Dogs and cats participate actively in this parasite's transmission cycle. This study aimed at evaluating the occurrence of T. cruzi in dogs and cats from Botucatu, SP, Brazil, as well as at evaluating the technique of hemoculture in LIT (liver infusion tryptose) medium by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods. Blood samples were collected from 50 dogs and 50 cats in Botucatu-SP, Brazil. For hemoculture, the samples were inoculated in LIT medium, and readings were performed for four months. Upon completion of such period, all the hemocultures were processed for parasitic DNA extraction. The PCR reactions were performed by using primers TCZ1/TCZ2. Results. Ten dogs and ten cats (20%) were positive to PCR, and four dogs and three cats (7%) were positive to hemoculture. Only in a one cat sample (1%) there was confirmation of positive hemoculture by PCR for T. cruzi. Conclusions. Results showed that PCR was a suitable tool for the confirmation of the parasite detection in hemoculture samples, and that dogs and cats from Botucatu, SP, Brazil, are maintaining the role of household reservoirs of T. cruzi, which reinforces the need for constant epidemiologic surveillance for this zoonosis.
Scorpion envenomation is a significant public health concern in São Paulo, Brazil, and its incidence and mortality have increased in recent decades. The present study analyzed documented scorpion envenomation notifications from 2008 to 2018 throughout the 645 municipalities of São Paulo. Annual incidence and mortality rates were calculated and stratified according to sex and age. The local empirical Bayesian method and Getis-Ord Gi* statistic were used to represent standardized incidence rates in the municipalities and to identify high- and low-risk agglomerates. The incidence rate of scorpion envenomation quintupled between 2008 and 2018. Overall, the risk was higher for man, and increased with age. Deaths due to envenomation, however, were concentrated almost entirely in children 0–9 years of age. Incidence maps showed that the risk of envenomation increased in almost all regions and municipalities of São Paulo throughout the study period. The highest incidence rates were found in the western, northwestern and northern regions of the state, in contrast to the São Paulo metropolitan area and southern and coastal regions. Hot spots were identified in the Presidente Prudente, Barretos, São José do Rio Preto, and Araçatuba regional health districts, which over time formed a single high-risk cluster. In spatial terms, however, deaths were randomly distributed. In this study, we identified areas and populations at risk of scorpion envenomation and associated–fatalities, which can be used to support decision-making by health services to reduce human contact with these arachnids and avoid fatalities, especially in children.
1. Doença de Chagas -Botucatu (SP) 2. Doença de ChagasCampo Grande (MS) 3. Gato -Doenças 4. Cão -Doenças Palavras-chave: Cães; Doença de Chagas; Gatos; Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase; Trypanosoma cruzi DEDICATÓRIA Aos meus pais Sebastião (in memorian) e Dirce:Dedico à vocês este trabalho, por todo apoio, dedicação, carinho e amizade, e pela luz e referência sempre presentes em minha vida. As palavras nunca serão suficientes para agradecer. Amo vocês!Aos meus irmãos Du, Léa e Sônia, com a certeza de que podemos sempre contar uns com os outros. A toda minha família que sempre se fez presente, mesmo que de longe, me apoiando e me dando forças para alcançar meus objetivos.Obrigado a todos! À minha namorada Lisi por todo amor, amizade, respeito e companheirismo que foram únicos e especiais em todo este projeto.Te amo! "Seja bom com os outros. A distância que você caminha na vida vai depender da sua ternura com os jovens, da sua compaixão com os idosos, sua compreensão com aqueles que lutam, da sua tolerância com os fracos e os fortes. Porque um dia você poderá ser um deles." George Washington Carver. AGRADECIMENTOS• Primeiramente à Deus por mais esta conquista, dando-me coragem, sabedoria e perseverança para continuar a luta.• À minha orientadora Profa. Dra. Simone Baldini Lucheis, pela oportunidade da realização de mais uma passo importante em minha vida.• À Dra. Sueli Calvi por sua solicitude e por sempre favorecer o bom andamento de meu projeto no Laboratório de Doenças Tropicais da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu.• À Profa. Dra. Ana Luíza Castro da Universidade Federal de Campo Grande (UFMS) por disponibilizar seu laboratório de Bacteriologia para o desenvolvimento de parte deste projeto.• Aos Médicos Veterinários e funcionários do Centro de Controle de Zoonoses (CCZ) de Campo Grande-MS pelo apoio e ajuda com os animais, e em especial à Diretora Júlia Maksoud Brazuna, por permitir a realização desta pesquisa.• Aos Médicos Veterinários e funcionários do Canil Municipal de Botucatu-SP, por permitir a realização desta pesquisa, e pelo apoio e ajuda com os animais.• À Associação de Proteção Animal de Botucatu (APA), em nome de Maria José e Maria Lúcia, por disponibilizar os gatos para a colheita de sangue e propiciar a realização deste projeto.• À Lúcia, técnica do laboratório de Bacteriologia da UFMS, por sua colaboração e solicitude quanto ao uso desse laboratório.• Ao Carlinhos, técnico do Laboratório de Doenças Tropicais da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, pela ajuda prestada.• Aos meus colegas Pós-Graduandos e Aprimorandos do Laboratório de Doenças Tropicais, em especial ao Thales, Talísia, Larissa, Vanessa, Eliana, Tatiane, Mariana, James e Daniela pela companhia, amizade, boa vontade e por sempre me ajudarem quando precisei. Muito RESUMOA doença de Chagas é uma zoonose, causada pelo Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), afetando também espécies de animais silvestres e domésticos. Os cães e os gatos têm grande importância no ciclo de transmissão deste parasita, sendo considerados os principais reservatórios domést...
Background Scorpion stings in Brazil represent a major public health problem due to their incidence and their potential ability to lead to severe and often fatal clinical outcomes. A better understanding of scorpionism determinants is essential for a precise comprehension of accident dynamics and to guide public policy. Our study is the first to model the spatio-temporal variability of scorpionism across municipalities in São Paulo (SP) and to investigate its relationship with demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and climatic variables. Methodology This ecological study analyzed secondary data on scorpion envenomation in SP from 2008 to 2021, using the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) to perform Bayesian inference for detection of areas and periods with the most suitable conditions for scorpionism. Principal findings From the spring of 2008 to 2021, the relative risk (RR) increased eight times in SP, from 0.47 (95%CI 0.43–0.51) to 3.57 (95%CI 3.36–3.78), although there has been an apparent stabilization since 2019. The western, northern, and northwestern parts of SP showed higher risks; overall, there was a 13% decrease in scorpionism during winters. Among the covariates considered, an increase of one standard deviation in the Gini index, which captures income inequality, was associated with a 11% increase in scorpion envenomation. Maximum temperatures were also associated with scorpionism, with risks doubling for temperatures above 36°C. Relative humidity displayed a nonlinear association, with a 50% increase in risk for 30–32% humidity and reached a minimum of 0.63 RR for 75–76% humidity. Conclusions Higher temperatures, lower humidity, and social inequalities were associated with a higher risk of scorpionism in SP municipalities. By capturing local and temporal relationships across space and time, authorities can design more effective strategies that adhere to local and temporal considerations.
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