Empirical and factorial methods are currently used to estimate nutrient requirements for domestic animals. The purpose of this study was to estimate the nutrient requirements of a given pig population using the empirical and factorial methods; to establish the relationship between the requirements estimated with these two methods; and to study the limitations of the methods when used to determine the level of a nutrient needed to optimize individual and population responses of growing pigs. A systematic analysis was carried out on optimal lysine-to-net-energy (Lys : NE) ratios estimated by the empirical and factorial methods using a modified InraPorc R growth model. Sixty-eight pigs were individually simulated based on detailed experimental data. In the empirical method, population responses were estimated by feeding pigs with 11 diets of different Lys : NE ratios. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were the chosen performance criteria. These variables were combined with economic information to estimate the economic responses. In the factorial method, the Lys : NE ratio for each animal was estimated by model inversion. Optimal Lys : NE ratios estimated for growing pigs (25 to 105 kg) differed between the empirical and the factorial method. When the average pig is taken to represent a population, the factorial method does not permit estimation of the Lys : NE ratio that maximizes the response of heterogeneous populations in a given time or weight interval. Although optimal population responses are obtained by the empirical method, the estimated requirements are fixed and cannot be used for other growth periods or populations. This study demonstrates that the two methods commonly used to estimate nutrient requirements provide different nutrient recommendations and have important limitations that should be considered when the goal is to optimize the response of individuals or pig populations.
The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a mathematical model used to estimate the daily amino acid requirements of individual growing-finishing pigs. The model includes empirical and mechanistic model components. The empirical component estimates daily feed intake (DFI), BW, and daily gain (DG) based on individual pig information collected in real time. Based on DFI, BW, and DG estimates, the mechanistic component uses classic factorial equations to estimate the optimal concentration of amino acids that must be offered to each pig to meet its requirements. The model was evaluated with data from a study that investigated the effect of feeding pigs with a 3-phase or daily multiphase system. The DFI and BW values measured in this study were compared with those estimated by the empirical component of the model. The coherence of the values estimated by the mechanistic component was evaluated by analyzing if it followed a normal pattern of requirements. Lastly, the proposed model was evaluated by comparing its estimates with those generated by the existing growth model (InraPorc). The precision of the proposed model and InraPorc in estimating DFI and BW was evaluated through the mean absolute error. The empirical component results indicated that the DFI and BW trajectories of individual pigs fed ad libitum could be predicted 1 d (DFI) or 7 d (BW) ahead with the average mean absolute error of 12.45 and 1.85%, respectively. The average mean absolute error obtained with the InraPorc for the average individual of the population was 14.72% for DFI and 5.38% for BW. Major differences were observed when estimates from InraPorc were compared with individual observations. The proposed model, however, was effective in tracking the change in DFI and BW for each individual pig. The mechanistic model component estimated the optimal standardized ileal digestible Lys to NE ratio with reasonable between animal (average CV = 7%) and overtime (average CV = 14%) variation. Thus, the amino acid requirements estimated by model are animal- and time-dependent and follow, in real time, the individual DFI and BW growth patterns. The proposed model can follow the average feed intake and feed weight trajectory of each individual pig in real time with good accuracy. Based on these trajectories and using classical factorial equations, the model makes it possible to estimate dynamically the AA requirements of each animal, taking into account the intake and growth changes of the animal.
-The high cost of feed ingredients, the use of non-renewable sources of phosphate and the dramatic increase in the environmental load resulting from the excessive land application of manure are major challenges for the livestock industry. Precision feeding is proposed as an essential approach to improve the utilization of dietary nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients and thus reduce feeding costs and nutrient excretion. Precision feeding requires accurate knowledge of the nutritional value of feedstuffs and animal nutrient requirements, the formulation of diets in accordance with environmental constraints, and the gradual adjustment of the dietary nutrient supply to match the requirements of the animals. After the nutritional potential of feed ingredients has been precisely determined and has been improved by the addition of enzymes (e.g. phytases) or feed treatments, the addition of environmental objectives to the traditional feed formulation algorithms can promote the sustainability of the swine industry by reducing nutrient excretion in swine operations with small increases in feeding costs. Increasing the number of feeding phases can also contribute to significant reductions in nutrient excretion and feeding costs. However, the use of precision feeding techniques in which pigs are fed individually with daily tailored diets can further improve the efficiency with which pigs utilize dietary nutrients. Precision feeding involves the use of feeding techniques that allow the provision of the right amount of feed with the right composition at the right time to each pig in the herd. Using this approach, it has been estimated that feeding costs can be reduced by more than 4.6%, and nitrogen and phosphorus excretion can both be reduced by more than 38%. Moreover, the integration of precision feeding techniques into large-group production systems can provide real-time off-farm monitoring of feed and animals for optimal slaughter and production strategies, thus improving the environmental sustainability of pork production, animal well-being and meat-product quality.Key Words: animal variability, diet formulation, nutrient excretion, nutrient requirements, production cost Técnicas de alimentação de precisão em operações de suínos em crescimento-terminaçãoRESUMO -O custo elevado das matérias-primas, o uso de recursos não renováveis de fosfatos e o aumento da poluição ambiental resultante do excesso de aplicação de dejetos no meio ambiente têm sido considerado um dos principais problemas na produção animal. A alimentação de precisão é proposta como uma abordagem essencial para melhorar a utilização do nitrogênio, fósforo e outros nutrientes oriundos da dieta e reduzir assim o custo da dieta e a excreção de nutrientes. A alimentação de precisão requer um conhecimento do valor nutricional dos ingredientes, exigência nutricional dos animais, formulação das dietas de acordo com as restrições ambientais e do adequado ajuste da oferta de nutrientes com a exigência dos animais. O conhecimento do potencial nutricional...
A meta-analysis was carried out in order to study the association of mycotoxins with performance and organ weights in growing pigs. A total of 85 articles published between 1968 and 2010 were used, totaling 1012 treatments and 13 196 animals. The metaanalysis followed three sequential analyses: graphical, correlation and variance-covariance. The presence of mycotoxins in diets was seen to reduce the feed intake by 18% and the weight gain in 21% compared with the control group. Deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins were the mycotoxins with the greatest impact on the feed intake and growth of pigs, reducing by 26% and 16% in the feed intake and by 26% and 22% in the weight gain. The mycotoxin concentration in diets and the animal age at challenge were the variables that more improved the coefficient of determination in equations for estimating the effect of mycotoxins on weight gain. The mycotoxin effect on growth proved to be greater in younger animals. In addition, the residual analysis showed that the greater part of the variation in weight gain was explained by the variation in feed intake (87%). The protein and methionine levels in diets could influence the feed intake and the weight gain in challenged animals. The weight gain in challenged pigs showed a positive correlation with the methionine level in diets (0.68). The mycotoxin effect on growth was greater in males compared with the effect on females. The reduction in weight gain was of 15% in the female group and 19% in the male group. Mycotoxin presence in pig diets has interfered in the relative weight of the liver, the kidneys and the heart. Mycotoxins have an influence on performance and organ weight in pigs. However, the magnitude of the effects varies with the type and concentration of mycotoxin, sex and the animal age, as well as nutritional factors.Keywords: aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, nutrition, swine, trichothecenes ImplicationsThe mycotoxin effect on animal performance is recognized. However, this effect may be modified by several factors, which are noticeable in the large variability observed in previous results. This study is innovative, because it seeks to understand and quantify the interactions among mycotoxins and other factors such as nutrition, sex or growth phase of the pigs. The meta-analysis used the complementarities among previous studies in order to highlight gaps in mycotoxicology, which is hardly studied in traditional experimental designs. Furthermore, it aimed to assist in understanding the mycotoxin effects that this approach can support in the determination of dynamic growth standards for challenged animals.
RESUMO -Este texto descreve os princípios básicos de sistematização com enfoque em meta-análise. É apresentado o estado da arte da meta-análise, recuperando informações de sua evolução e metodologias básicas para sua realização. São descritos seus antecedentes históricos, os limites das abordagens clássicas de revisão de literatura, as bases conceituais, os objetivos e justificativas. É indicada uma metodologia geral para realização da meta-análise.São apresentados os critérios para a definição dos objetivos. São descritos os procedimentos de sistematização das informações e gestão de base bibliográfica de dados destinada aos estudos meta-analíticos (seleção, codificação, filtragem de dados). São apresentadas as análises mais comuns (gráfica, ponderações), a escolha do modelo estatístico (um fator explicativo qualitativo, um efeito qualitativo ou quantitativo), os fatores de interferência, os procedimentos pós-analíticos (variações residuais, heterogeneidade entre resultados). Em síntese, este texto mostra que a metaanálise é superior às formas tradicionais de revisão de literatura por estimar com maior precisão os efeitos dos tratamentos, ajustando-os para a heterogeneidade experimental. No entanto, a meta-análise exige os efeitos na sistematização e análise dos resultados da pesquisa.Palavras-chave: análise sistêmica, produção animal, revisão de literatura, sistematização Meta analysis in scientific research: a methodological approachABSTRACT -This text describes a basic approach of systematization with focus on meta-analysis. It is presented the art state of the meta-analysis, recovering information of its evolution and basic methodologies for its accomplishment. In this text are described the historical antecedents of meta-analysis, the limits of the classic approaches of literature review, the conceptual bases and the objectives. It is indicated a general methodology for meta-analysis procedures. The criteria for the definition of the objectives are presented. The procedures of the systematization and management of bibliographical data base selected to meta-analytic studies are described (selection, code, data filtration). The most common analysis (graph, adjustments) are presented, the choice of the statistical model (a qualitative explanatory factor, a qualitative or quantitative effect), the interference factors and the post-analytic procedures (residual variations, heterogeneity among results). In conclusion, this text shows that meta-analysis is better than traditional methods of literature review for esteeming with more precision the treatments effects adjusting it's for the experimental heterogeneity. However, the meta-analysis requires discipline in the systematization and analysis of the research results.
The feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs reared under precision feeding strategies was studied in 35 barrows and 35 females (average initial BW of 30.4 ± 2.2 kg) over 84 d. Five different feeding programs were evaluated, namely a conventional 3-phase program in which pigs were fed with a constant blend of diet A (high nutrient density) and diet B (low nutrient density) and 4 daily phase-feeding programs in which pigs were fed daily with a blend meeting 110, 100, 90, or 80% of the individual Lys requirements. Electronic feeder systems automatically recorded the visits to the feeder, the time of the meals, and the amount of feed consumed per meal. The trial lasted 84 d and the database contained 59,701 feeder visits. The recorded database was used to calculate the number of meals per day, feeding time per meal (min), intervals between meals (min), feed intake per meal (g), and feed consumption rate (feed intake divided by feeding time per meal, expressed in g/min) of each animal. The feeding pattern was predominantly diurnal (73% of the feeder visits). Number of meals, duration of meals, time between meals, feed consumed per meal, and feed consumption rate were not affected by the feeding programs. The females ingested 19% less feed per meal and had a 6% lower feed consumption rate in comparison with the barrows ( < 0.05). Pig feeding behavior was not correlated with diet composition. However, feed efficiency was negatively correlated with amount of feed consumed per meal ( = -0.38, < 0.05) and feed consumption rate ( = -0.44, < 0.05). Feed consumption rate was also negatively correlated with protein efficiency ( = -0.44, < 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that feed consumption rate and number of meals per day are the variables related most closely to pig production performance results. Current results indicate that using precision feeding as an approach to reduce Lys intake does not interfere with the feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs.
A meta-analysis was carried out to study the association of mycotoxins with performance, productive indices, and organ weights in broilers. Ninety-eight papers published between 1980 and 2009 were used, totaling 1,401 diets and 37,371 animals. Meta-analysis followed 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance. The mycotoxin presence in diets reduced (P < 0.05) feed intake by 12% and weight gain by 14% compared with control group. Ochratoxins and aflatoxins were the mycotoxins with the greatest effect on feed intake and bird growth, reducing (P < 0.05) feed ingestion by 17 and 11%, respectively, and weight gain by 20 and 11%, respectively. The mycotoxin concentration in diets and the animal age at challenge were the variables that more improved the coefficient of determination for equations to estimate mycotoxin effect on weight gain. The mycotoxin effect on growth proved to be greater in young poultry. The residual analysis revealed that 65% of the variation in weight gain was explained by feed intake. The variation in weight gain of challenged broilers in relation to nonchallenged broilers was also influenced by ingestion of nutrients such as protein and methionine. Mortality was 8.8 and 2.8 times greater (P < 0.05) in groups that received diets with deoxynivalenol and aflatoxins, respectively. Mycotoxins also increased (P < 0.05) the relative weight of liver by 15%, of kidneys by 11%, of lungs by 9%, and of gizzard by 3%. Mycotoxins influenced broiler performance, productive indices, and organ weights. However, the magnitude of the effects varied with type and concentration of mycotoxin, animal age, and nutritional factors.
Energy, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and water are essential nutrients that must be provided to animals in adequate amounts to live (maintenance), grow and produce (reproduction, lactation, etc.). For a given growing animal and at a given time during its development, the daily nutrient requirements can be estimated as the sum of the requirements for maintenance and growth. These requirements are estimated for each nutrient or its precursor taking into account the efficiency with which each nutrient is used for each metabolic function. However, pigs are raised in groups and, within each group, animals significantly differ in body weight and growth potential and consequently nutrient requirements vary greatly among them. Phase-feeding is widely used in growing-finishing pig operations and, in this context of feeding populations, nutrition requirements are rather defined as the amount of nutrients needed for specified production purposes, which in farm animals consist of optimal production outputs (e.g. maximal growth rate, optimal feed conversion, etc.). Unfortunately, the optimal population responses are obtained with levels of nutrients that satisfy the requirements of the most demanding pigs, with the result that most of the pigs in the population receive more nutrients than they need to express their growth potential. Precision farming or precision agriculture is an agricultural management concept that relies on the existence of in-field variability. Precision feeding allows the feeding of individual pigs with daily tailored diets, the composition of which is determined in real time using the available information from the farm, which in the context of precision feeding is daily feed intake and body weight measurements. The real-time individual pig nutrient requirement estimated using each pig pattern of feed intake and growth represents a fundamental paradigm shift in pig nutrition because pig nutrient requirements are no longer a population attribute estimated from data collected in previous trials, but a dynamic process that evolves independently for each animal and is regulated by its own intrinsic (e.g. genetics, health, nutritional status, etc.) and extrinsic (e.g. environmental and social stressors, management, etc.) modulating factors. Precision feeding is being proposed to alleviate the limitations of group-feeding systems in which optimal dietary nutrient levels are determined a priori and served to heterogeneous populations over specified periods of time. It is demonstrated that feeding pigs individually with diets tailored daily to their individual lysine requirements made it possible to obtain similar intake and growth results to conventional feeding systems. Precision feeding reduced lysine intake by more than 25% and feeding costs by more than 8%. Precision feeding is an effective approach to improve nutrient utilization efficiency, to reduce nutrient excretion and feed costs, and thus it is proposed to the swine industry as an essential tool to enhance sustainability and competitiveness.
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