Adult acne has been classified into two major subtypes: “persistent acne” and “late onset acne”. A surrogate marker of hyperandrogenism (HA) in adult female acne is the presence of clinical signs of HA and biochemical hyperandrogenemia. We compared the clinical and hormonal profiles of the two acne subtypes and evaluated the likely source of androgen excess – ovarian or adrenal.
Female acne patients 25 years of age and older were evaluated for clinical HA. Hormonal assessment included total testosterone (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), anti‐Mullerian hormone (AMH), 17‐hydroxyprogesterone (17‐OHP), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin. DHEAS and 17‐OHP represented adrenal androgens and AMH indicated ovarian reserve.
Of 120 cases, clinical HA was seen in 71.67% while biochemical hyperandrogenemia was detected in only 18.33% of patients. Though late onset was more common in adult acne patients (56.6%), the persistent acne subgroup (43.33%) had a younger age at onset, a past history of adolescent acne (51.92%), truncal predilection (44.23%), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (44.23%), significant presence of irregular menses (40.38%) and hirsutism (57.69%), and increased TT (13.46%), 17‐OHP (76.92%), AMH (44.23%), and increased LH/FSH (15.38%) ratio. PCOS was seen more in the persistent acne patients with clinical HA and increased 17‐OHP levels.
Persistent acne patients had marked clinical HA, PCOS, and hormonal abnormalities necessitating an endocrinological evaluation. As a corollary, this subgroup would benefit from antiandrogen therapy.
Background. Predictors of thyroid dysfunction in HIV are not well determined. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid dysfunction in HIV infected Indians. Methods. Consecutive HIV patients, 18–70 years of age, without any severe comorbid state, having at least 1-year follow-up at the antiretroviral therapy clinic, underwent clinical assessment and hormone assays. Results. From initially screened 527 patients, 359 patients (61.44 ± 39.42 months' disease duration), having good immune function [CD4 count >200 cell/mm3: 90.25%; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): 88.58%], were analyzed. Subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) was the commonest thyroid dysfunction (14.76%) followed by sick euthyroid syndrome (SES) (5.29%) and isolated low TSH (3.1%). Anti-TPO antibody (TPOAb) was positive in 3.90%. Baseline CD4 count had inverse correlation with TPOAb after adjusting for age and body mass index. Stepwise linear regression revealed baseline CD4 count, TPOAb, and tuberculosis to be best predictors of ScH after adjusting for age, weight, duration of HIV, and history of opportunistic fungal and viral infections. Conclusion. Burden of thyroid dysfunction in chronic HIV infection with stable immune function is lower compared to pre-HAART era. Thyroid dysfunction is primarily of nonautoimmune origin, predominantly ScH. Severe immunodeficiency at disease onset, TPOAb positivity, and tuberculosis were best predictors of ScH.
Background & objectives:Data on bone mineral density (BMD) and sarcopenia are scant from young females with HIV. This study was conducted to determine occurrence, predictors and impact of body composition alterations on osteoporosis in pre-menopausal women with HIV.Methods:A total of 214 females with serologically documented HIV infection were screened, of whom 103 pre-menopausal women, 25-45 yr age, clinically stable, having at least one year follow up data, underwent hormonal and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis for BMD and body composition. Seventy five matched controls were also evaluated.Results:Females with HIV had significantly lower BMD and Z-score at lumbar spine (LS), total femur, neck of femur (NOF), and radius ultra-distal (UD) compared to controls. Osteoporosis at least at one site was observed in 34.95 per cent patients, compared to eight per cent in controls (P <0.001). Most common site of osteoporosis in females with HIV was radius UD (24.27%), followed by radius 33 per cent (17.48%), radius total (15.53%) and greater trochanter, NOF and LS (6.80% each). HIV patients had significantly lower bone mineral content, lean mass (LM), fat per cent, android (A) fat, gynoid (G) fat, and A/G ratio. LM and fat mass (FM) were −15.65 and −11.54 per cent lower in HIV patients, respectively. Osteoporosis patients had significantly higher use of antiretroviral therapy and lower LM, FM and fat per cent. On logistic regression, LM followed by A/G ratio and BMI were the best predictors of osteoporosis. Sarcopenia was observed in 17.5 per cent patients.Interpretation & conclusions:Our results showed that osteoporosis and sarcopenia were significant problems in young women with HIV. HIV was associated with greater LM loss, which was critical for bone health. Sarcopenia may predict low BMD in HIV.
The study was designed to evaluate the influence of season on semen characteristics and seminal plasma protein profile of buffalo bull semen. Thirty-six ejaculates were collected in three seasons (winter, summer and rainy) from six adult Bhadawari bulls, and semen characteristics were evaluated immediately after collection. The seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation and protein profiling, and percentage protein fractions were analysed by SDS-PAGE. The significant effect of season was observed on ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility, percentage live spermatozoa, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosomal integrity. The electrophoretogram of seminal plasma proteins revealed 20 protein bands in winter, 23 bands in rainy and 25 bands in summer seasons, illustrating the significant effect of seasons on seminal plasma proteins. Among these protein bands, 18 bands were observed common in semen samples of all three seasons while protein bands of 46, 55, 58, 144 and 160 kDa were found in rainy and summer seasons. The protein bands of 48 and 60 kDa were observed only in winter season, whereas 184 and 200 kDa were reported in summer season only. The protein fractions (protein%) of common protein bands observed in three seasons revealed a significant effect of season on protein bands of 24.5, 66, 70, 72, 84 and 86 kDa. From the study, it was pertinent that bull seminal plasma contains specific proteins in particular season, which may be associated with some of the semen characteristics, and these proteins could be used as markers of the semen quality of buffalo bulls.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.