The State of Ceará in north-eastern Brazil has one of the highest rates in the world of relapse and death due to disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. The objective of this study is to characterise the relapse and mortality of DH in AIDS cases residents in Ceará. We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of AIDS patients who had a first episode of DH from 2002 to 2008. We analysed the outcomes until December 31, 2010. A total of 145 patients participated in the study. The mean clinical follow-up duration was 3.38 years (SD = 2.2; 95% CI = 3.01-3.75). The majority of the subjects were male with a mean age of 35 years (SD = 2.2; 95% CI = 3.01-3.75) and were born in the capital of Ceará. DH was the first manifestation of AIDS in 59% of the patients. The relapse rate was 23.3%, with a disseminated presentation in 90% of these patients. The overall mortality during the study period was 30.2%. The majority of patients who relapsed or died had irregular treatment with antifungals or highly active antiretroviral therapy and did not have active clinical follow-up. High rates of recurrence and mortality were found in AIDS-associated DH in this area of the country.
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