To develop NaYF(4) as bulk luminescence material, transparent glass ceramics containing Er(3+): NaYF(4) nanocrystals were fabricated for the first time, and the influences of heat-treatment temperature and Er(3+) doping level on their upconversion luminescence were investigated. With increasing heating temperature, the upconversion intensity enhanced accordingly, attributing to the incorporation of more Er(3+) into the grown NaYF(4). Notably, when the heating temperature reached 650 degrees C, the upconversion intensity augmented drastically due to the occurrence of phase transition from the cubic NaYF(4) to the hexagonal one. Interestingly, for the samples heat-treated at 620 degrees C, when the Er(3+) doping level was increased from 0.05 to 2.0 mol %, the upconversion emission was whole-range tunable from monochromatic green to approximately monochromatic red, which could be mainly attributed to the cross-relaxation between Er(3+) ions. The excellent optical properties and its convenient, low-cost synthesis of the present glass ceramic imply that it is an excellent substitution material for the unobtainable bulk NaYF(4) crystal, potentially applicable in many fields.
The propagation of tightly focused femtosecond laser pulse with numerical aperture of 0.12 in air is investigated experimentally. The formation and evolution of the filament bunch are recorded by time-resolved shadowgraph with laser energy from 2.4 mJ to 47 mJ. The distribution of electron density in breakdown area is retrieved using Nomarski interferometer. It is found that intensity clamping during filamentation effect still play a role even under strong external focusing. The electron density in some interaction zones is higher than 3 × 10(19) cm(-3), which indicates that each air molecule there is ionized.
The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme holds promising prospects for efficiently generating intense coherent radiation at very high harmonics of a conventional ultraviolet seed laser. We report the lasing of the EEHG free-electron laser (FEL) at an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength with a seeded FEL facility, the Shanghai soft x-ray FEL. For the first time, we have benchmarked the basic theory of EEHG by measuring the bunching factor distributions over one octave down to the EUV region. Our results demonstrated the key advantages of the EEHG FEL, i.e., generation of very high harmonics with a small laser-induced energy spread and insensitivity to beam imperfections, and marks a great step towards fully coherent x rays with the EEHG scheme.
Second- and third-harmonic generations of femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses have been measured from chicken skin, muscle, and fat tissues. The magnitude of the harmonic signals showed a strong structural dependence with the signal from skin interface being the strongest. The polarization dependence of the signal was also measured and found to be consistent with the fact that the tissue samples were highly scattering random media. The second-harmonic- and third-harmonic-generation conversion efficiencies were found to be in the range of ~10(-7) to ~10(-10).
By using multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study the electromagnetic emission from radiation pressure acceleration of ultrathin mass-limited foils. When a circularly polarized laser pulse irradiates the foil, the laser radiation pressure pushes the foil forward as a whole. The outer wings of the pulse continue to propagate and act as a natural undulator. Electrons move together with ions longitudinally but oscillate around the latter transversely, forming a self-organized helical electron bunch. When the electron oscillation frequency coincides with the laser frequency as witnessed by the electron, betatronlike resonance occurs. The emitted x rays by the resonant electrons have high brightness, short durations, and broad band ranges which may have diverse applications.
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