With the rapid development of "Internet plus", medical care has entered the era of big data. However, there is little research on medical big data (MBD) from the perspectives of bibliometrics and visualization. The substantive research on the basic aspects of MBD itself is also rare. This study aims to explore the current status of medical big data through visualization analysis on the journal papers related to MBD. We analyze a total of 988 references which were downloaded from the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Science Citation Index databases from Web of Science and the time span was defined as "all years". The GraphPad Prism 5, VOSviewer and CiteSpace softwares are used for analysis. Many results concerning the annual trends, the top players in terms of journal and institute levels, the citations and H-index in terms of country level, the keywords distribution, the highly cited papers, the co-authorship status and the most influential journals and authors are presented in this paper. This study points out the development status and trends on MBD. It can help people in the medical profession to get comprehensive understanding on the state of the art of MBD. It also has reference values for the research and application of the MBD visualization methods.
IL-17 is a pivotal proinflammatory molecule in asthmatics. However, the cellular source of IL-17 in asthma has not been identified to date. In this study, we report that macrophages rather than Th17 cells are the main producer of IL-17 in allergic inflammation related to asthma. After OVA challenge in a mouse model mimicking allergic asthma, the increased IL-17+ cells in the lung were mainly CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages, instead of T cells or others. Importantly, IL-17+ alveolar macrophages (AMs), but not IL-17+ interstitial macrophages, were significantly increased after allergen challenge. The increase of IL-17+ AMs was not due to the influx of IL-17+ macrophages from circulation or other tissues, but ascribed to the activation of AMs by mediator(s) secreted by IgE/OVA-activated mast cells. Depleting alveolar macrophages or neutralizing IL-17 prevented the initiation of OVA-induced asthma-related inflammation by inhibiting the increase of inflammatory cells and inflammatory factors in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Th2 cytokine IL-10 could down-regulate IL-17 expression in alveolar macrophages. The increased IL-17 and the decreased IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were further confirmed in asthmatic patients. These findings suggest that IL-17 is mainly produced by macrophages but not Th17 cells in allergic inflammation related to asthma. Mast cell-released mediators up-regulate the expression of IL-17 by macrophages, whereas IL-10 down-regulates IL-17 expression.
Atherosclerosis (AS), the underlying cause of most cardiovascular events, is one of the most common causes of human morbidity and mortality worldwide due to the lack of an efficient strategy for targeted therapy. In this work, we aimed to develop an ideal biomimetic nanoparticle for targeted AS therapy.
Based on macrophage “homing” into atherosclerotic lesions and cell membrane coating nanotechnology, biomimetic nanoparticles (MM/RAPNPs) were fabricated with a macrophage membrane (MM) coating on the surface of rapamycin-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) copolymer (PLGA) nanoparticles (RAPNPs). Subsequently, the physical properties of the MM/RAPNPs were characterized. The biocompatibility and biological functions of MM/RAPNPs were determined
. Finally, in AS mouse models, the targeting characteristics, therapeutic efficacy and safety of the MM/RAPNPs were examined.
The advanced MM/RAPNPs demonstrated good biocompatibility. Due to the MM coating, the nanoparticles effectively inhibited the phagocytosis by macrophages and targeted activated endothelial cells
. In addition, MM-coated nanoparticles effectively targeted and accumulated in atherosclerotic lesions
. After a 4-week treatment program, MM/RAPNPs were shown to significantly delay the progression of AS. Furthermore, MM/RAPNPs displayed favorable safety performance after long-term administration.
These results demonstrate that MM/RAPNPs could efficiently and safely inhibit the progression of AS. These biomimetic nanoparticles may be potential drug delivery systems for safe and effective anti-AS applications.
Nanotechnology-based antitumor drug delivery systems, known as nanocarriers, have demonstrated their efficacy in recent years. Typically, the size of the nanocarriers is around 100 nm. It is imperative to achieve an optimum size of these nanocarriers which must be designed uniquely for each type of delivery process. For pH-responsive nanocarriers with programmable size, changes in pH (~6.5 for tumor tissue, ~5.5 for endosomes, and ~5.0 for lysosomes) may serve as an endogenous stimulus improving the safety and therapeutic efficacy of antitumor drugs. This review focuses on current advanced pH-responsive nanocarriers with programmable size changes for anticancer drug delivery. In particular, pH-responsive mechanisms for nanocarrier retention at tumor sites, size reduction for penetrating into tumor parenchyma, escaping from endo/lysosomes, and swelling or disassembly for drug release will be highlighted. Additional trends and challenges of employing these nanocarriers in future clinical applications are also addressed.
Mitofusin-2 (MFN2) is a dynamin-like GTPase that plays a central role in regulating mitochondrial fusion and cell metabolism. Mutations in MFN2 cause the neurodegenerative disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2A (CMT2A). The molecular basis underlying the physiological and pathological relevance of MFN2 is unclear. Here, we present crystal structures of truncated human MFN2 in different nucleotide-loading states. Unlike other dynamin superfamily members including MFN1, MFN2 forms sustained dimers even after GTP hydrolysis via the GTPase domain (G) interface, which accounts for its high membrane-tethering efficiency. The biochemical discrepancy between human MFN2 and MFN1 largely derives from a primate-only single amino acid variance. MFN2 and MFN1 can form heterodimers via the G interface in a nucleotide-dependent manner. CMT2A-related mutations, mapping to different functional zones of MFN2, lead to changes in GTP hydrolysis and homo/hetero-association ability. Our study provides fundamental insight into how mitofusins mediate mitochondrial fusion and the ways their disruptions cause disease.
The use of gold nanoparticles as radiosensitizers is an effective way to boost the killing efficacy of radiotherapy while drastically limiting the received dose and reducing the possible damage to normal tissues. Herein, we designed aggregation‐induced emission gold clustoluminogens (AIE‐Au) to achieve efficient low‐dose X‐ray‐induced photodynamic therapy (X‐PDT) with negligible side effects. The aggregates of glutathione‐protected gold clusters (GCs) assembled through a cationic polymer enhanced the X‐ray‐excited luminescence by 5.2‐fold. Under low‐dose X‐ray irradiation, AIE‐Au strongly absorbed X‐rays and efficiently generated hydroxyl radicals, which enhanced the radiotherapy effect. Additionally, X‐ray‐induced luminescence excited the conjugated photosensitizers, resulting in a PDT effect. The in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that AIE‐Au effectively triggered the generation of reactive oxygen species with an order‐of‐magnitude reduction in the X‐ray dose, enabling highly effective cancer treatment.
Our study suggests that high folate intake may have adverse effects on fetal mouse development and that maternal MTHFR deficiency may improve or rescue some of the adverse outcomes. These findings underscore the need for additional studies on the potential negative impact of high folate intake during pregnancy.
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