The objective of this research was to quantify the genetic divergence of potential Coffea canephora parents, with the goal of developing progenies that associate the best traits of the Conilon and Robusta botanical varieties for hybrid vigor expression. Thus, 10 morphological and productive characteristics of 130 clones of Conilon and Robusta botanical varieties and their intervarietal hybrids were evaluated over 2 years. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates of four plants per plot. For selection of parents, the main component analysis was used to associate values with reference points obtained from the average of each botanical variety. The first two principal components allowed for the separation of the botanical varieties representing the variability contained in the original data with 76% for the first year and 69% for the second year. Although, the genotype × years interaction had significant effects, there were minor differences in the grouping from one year to the next, which is associated with the higher repeatability estimates observed in this study. It was observed that crosses with the 16-1-81I, 9-1-82L, and 13-1-61I parents of the botanical variety Robusta and the 167I, 890E, and 130I parents of the Conilon botanical variety presented greater potential for obtaining selection gains.
ResumoA implantação da energia eólica está transformando as condições socioambientais no litoral brasileiro, especialmente no Nordeste. Para aprofundar o tema, usamos análise espacial em Sistema de Informação Geográfico -SIG para demonstrar que quase 50% dos aerogeradores do Rio Grande do Norte e do Ceará estão localizados em até 5 km de distância da costa. Através de estudo de campo em seis casos específicos, demonstramos por quê existem conflitos entre as comunidades e os empreendimentos e, por outro lado, quais os principais fatores que causam boas relações entre as empresas de energia e as comunidades.Palavras-chave: energia eólica; litoral; comunidade; conflito. AbstractThe development of wind power is transforming socioenvironmental conditions in Brazil's coastline, especially in the northeast. To investigate this issue, we performed spatial analysis in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to demonstrate that nearly 50% of the wind turbines in Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará are located within 5 km of the shoreline. Field work in six sites demonstrates why conflicts exist between communities and wind farms and, on the other hand, which are the main factors that create good relations between wind firms and communities. crescimento rápido da energia eólica no Brasil é, em grande parte, um fenômeno costeiro, já que 46% das turbinas eólicas estão localizadas na faixa até 25 km de distância do litoral e 26% distam até 5 km da costa brasileira. No Ceará e no Rio Grande do Norte, dois estados que possuem 43,8% de capacidade instalada de energia eólica brasileira, 43% dos aerogeradores estão localizados em até 5 km de distância da linha de costa. Os impactos socioambientais, destacados neste trabalho, significam um novo fator na geografia do litoral brasileiro além do turismo, da infraestrutura e da carcinicultura (MORAES, 1999). Nesse contexto, este trabalho tem por objetivos sintetizar os impactos socioambientais da energia eólica no litoral brasileiro, identificar as causas principais para as experiências negativas e positivas e compreender as principais lacunas de conhecimento para serem aprofundadas por pesquisas futuras. O
Classification of Coffea canephora clones in botanical varieties by discriminant analysis of the k-nearest neighbors 1A strategy for genetic improvement of coffee Coffea canephora plants is to aggregate through artificial crossings the characteristics of the Conilon botanical variety, such as shorter height and drought resistance, with the higher average grain size and resistance to pests and diseases of the Robusta variety. Efficiently separating the clones into these two groups with the aid of appropriate analytical procedures makes field tasks easier for professionals and, thus, allows the systematic production of intervarietal hybrids. This study verifies if the non-parametric discriminant analyzes of the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) and k-average neighbors (k-AN) would be able to correctly classify 130 coffee clones in their botanical varieties previously designated as Conilon, Robusta and Intervarietal Hybrids populations from ten quantitative agronomic characteristics, including the processed coffee beans yield, considering the existing population genetic divergence. These characteristics were found to be good discriminatory variables and the discriminant analyzes k-NN and k-AN, based on the principle of similarity by neighborhood, classified the clones with high hit rates. The k-AN discriminant analysis was able to better discriminate intervarietal hybrids from the group clones Conilon. The results correctly reflected the genetic diversity between the botanical varieties and intervarietal hybrids of Coffea canephora, allowing us to conclude that these classification methods can assist breeders in the main task of discriminating Conilon from Robusta clones.
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