Abstract-Growing load factors in winter and summer peaks are a serious problem faced by the Spanish electric energy system. This has led to the extensive use of peak load plants and thus to higher costs for the whole system.Wind energy represents a strongly increasing percentage of overall electricity production, but wind normally does not follow the typical demand profile. As generation flexibility is limited due to technical restrictions, and in absence of large energy storages, the other side of the equilibrium generation-demand has to react. Demand Side Management measures intend to adapt the demand profile to the situation in the system.In this paper, the operation of an electric system with high wind penetration is modeled by means of a unit commitment problem. Demand shifting and peak shaving are introduced to this operation problem. Demand shifting is modeled in two different ways. Firstly the system operator controls the shift of demand; secondly each consumer decides its reaction to prices depending on its elasticity.The model is applied to the isolated power system of Gran Canaria. The impact of an increased installed wind capacity on operation and the cost savings resulting from the introduction of responsive demand are assessed. Furthermore, results from the different implemented demand response options are compared.
Activating the demand-side of the electric system is a comeback of an old idea. What decades ago did not work out due to the lack of proper technology, today raises hopes to meliorate some of the most problematic situations in electric system operation such as ever higher peak demands and high wind generation during low demand periods. Smart grid infrastructures are currently implemented in many countries. This communication and control infrastructure allows consumers to receive information on system conditions, for example in the form of price signals, and thus to react to these and reduce, increase or shift their electricity consumption.This paper presents the modelling of demand shifting with two Demand Response mechanisms, Direct Load Control and Dynamic pricing. The outcome of both mechanisms depends, to a great extent, on two parameters: the maximum share of load which consumers are able and willing to shift and the elasticities used to express consumer's level of responsiveness in the dynamic pricing mechanism. An analysis of the sensitivity of the impact of Demand Response is carried out by varying these two parameters over a large range. Results regarding demand participation shares, cost savings, demand variation patterns and used generation technologies are compared for the different sensitivity cases. We find that cost saving increases are not proportional to increments in the maximum share of participating demand and in responsiveness to prices.
Abstract:This paper applies ELMOD, an economic-engineering model of the European electricity market to the issue of optimal investment placing of generation capacity in Germany under different market integration scenarios. The model is formulated as cost minimization approach. We conduct a scenario analysis comparing different rules for power plant placing in a national, a market-coupling and an integrated EU market approach. We find that there are great benefits for consumers and producers if taking into account network conditions and cross border congestion in generation location planning.Moreover a change from national planning to an integrated market planner perspective shows even more improvements in prices and network utilization.
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