This study demonstrates that a trait for an elevated level of serum total IgE is coinherited with a trait for bronchial hyperresponsiveness and that a gene governing bronchial hyperresponsiveness is located near a major locus that regulates serum IgE levels on chromosome 5q. These findings are consistent with the existence of one or more genes on chromosome 5q31-q33 causing susceptibility to asthma.
Pexiganan, a 22-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide, is an analog of the magainin peptides isolated from the skin of the African clawed frog. Pexiganan exhibited in vitro broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when it was tested against 3,109 clinical isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative, anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The pexiganan MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90) was 32 μg/ml or less forStaphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp.,Enterococcus faecium, Corynebacterium spp.,Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp.,Stenotrophomonas spp., certain species of the familyEnterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides spp.,Peptostreptococcus spp., and Propionibacteriumspp. Comparison of the MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of pexiganan for 143 isolates representing 32 species demonstrated that for 92% of the isolates tested, MBCs were the same or within 1 twofold difference of the MICs, consistent with a bactericidal mechanism of action. Killing curve analysis showed that pexiganan killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa rapidly, with 106 organisms/ml eliminated within 20 min of treatment with 16 μg of pexiganan per ml. No evidence of cross-resistance to a number of other antibiotic classes was observed, as determined by the equivalence of the MIC50s and the MIC90s of pexiganan for strains resistant to oxacillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, imipenem, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and clindamicin versus those for strains susceptible to these antimicrobial agents. Attempts to generate resistance in several bacterial species through repeated passage with subinhibitory concentrations of pexiganan were unsuccessful. In conclusion, pexiganan exhibits properties in vitro which make it an attractive candidate for development as a topical antimicrobial agent.
Topical pexiganan might be an effective alternative to oral antibiotic therapy in treating diabetic patients with a mildly infected foot ulcer, and might reduce the risk of selecting antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.
Exposures to the common air pollutant ozone (O3) cause decrements in pulmonary function and induce airway inflammation that is characterized by infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs; refs 1-4). Because of the impact that O3 may have on public health, it is critical to identify susceptibility factors. Highly reproducible, significant inter-individual variations in human pulmonary function responses to O3 support the hypothesis that genetic background is an important determinant. Initial analysis of PMN responses to O3 exposure in segregant populations derived from inflammation-prone (susceptible) C57BL/6J (B6) and inflammation-resistant C3H/HeJ (C3) inbred mice indicated that susceptibility was controlled by a locus we termed Inf2 (ref. 7). Subsequent analyses with recombinant inbred strains suggested that a more complex interaction of genes is involved. In this report, we identify a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for O3 susceptibility on chromosome 17. Candidate genes for the locus include Tnf, the gene encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (Tnf). Antibody neutralization of the protein product of this putative candidate gene significantly protected against O3 injury in susceptible mice. These results strongly support linkage of O3 susceptibility to a QTL on chromosome 17 and Tnf as a candidate gene.
Asthma is a complex heritable inf lammatory disorder of the airways associated with clinical signs of atopy and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies localized a major gene for asthma to chromosome 5q31-q33 in humans. Thus, this segment of the genome represents a candidate region for genes that determine susceptibility to bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy in animal models. Homologs of candidate genes on human chromosome 5q31-q33 are found in four regions in the mouse genome, two on chromosome 18, and one each on chromosomes 11 and 13. We assessed bronchial responsiveness as a quantitative trait in mice and found it linked to chromosome 13. Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is located in the linked region and was analyzed as a gene candidate. The expression of IL-9 was markedly reduced in bronchial hyporesponsive mice, and the level of expression was determined by sequences within the qualitative trait locus (QTL). These data suggest a role for IL-9 in the complex pathogenesis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness as a risk factor for asthma.
Human atopic asthma is a complex heritable inflammatory disorder of the airways associated with clinical signs of allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies demonstrate that the degree of airway responsiveness is strongly associated with interleukin (IL)-9 expression in murine lung. To investigate the contribution of IL-9 to airway hyperresponsiveness, and to explore directly its relationship to airway inflammation, we studied transgenic mice overexpressing IL-9. In this report we show that IL-9 transgenic mice (FVB/N-TG5), in comparison with FVB/NJ mice, display significantly enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation, elevated serum total immunoglobulin E, and airway hyperresponsiveness following lung challenge with a natural antigen (Aspergillus fumigatus). These data support a central role for IL-9 in the complex pathogenesis of allergic inflammation.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.