Malaria is a major public health concern in Ethiopia. With the increase in malaria cases in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, understanding the distribution and identifying the species of malaria vectors is vital to public health. Here we report the first detection of Anopheles stephensi in Ethiopia, a malaria vector typically found in the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, and China, but recently found in Djibouti. An entomological investigation was conducted during November to December 2016 in Kebri Dehar town of the Ethiopian Somali Regional State as ancillary work for Anopheles spp. surveillance. Mosquito larvae were collected from water reservoirs. Larvae were reared in the laboratory to the adult stage and identified morphologically. PCR and sequencing of cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) loci were performed. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) was used to compare sample sequences to sequences in the NCBI nucleotide database for species identification. To further analyze the relationship between the specimen we collected in Kebri Dehar and other Anopheles samples available in Genbank, phylogenetic analysis was performed using a maximum likelihood approach. Molecular and morphological results confirm specimens were An. stephensi. The closest high scoring hit was for all specimens was for the An. stephensi sequence. Independent phylogenetic analyses of COI and ITS2 sequences revealed in both cases strong bootstrap (100) support for our sequence forming a clade with other An. stephensi sequences to the exclusion of any other species of Anopheles. In conclusion, Anopheles stephensi is present in Kebri Dehar town in Ethiopia. These findings highlight the need for additional research to examine the role of An. stephensi in malaria transmission in Ethiopia.
Background: The recent detection of the South Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi in Ethiopia and other regions in the Horn of Africa has raised concerns about its potential impact on malaria transmission. We report here the findings of a survey for this species in eastern Ethiopia using both morphological and molecular methods for species identification.Methods: Adult and larval/pupal collections were conducted at ten sites in eastern Ethiopia and Anopheles specimens were identified using standard morphological keys and genetic analysis. Results:In total, 2231 morphologically identified An. stephensi were collected. A molecular approach incorporating both PCR endpoint assay and sequencing of portions of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) loci confirmed the identity of the An. stephensi in most cases (119/124 of the morphologically identified An. stephensi confirmed molecularly). Additionally, we observed Aedes aegypti larvae and pupae at many of the An. stephensi larval habitats. Conclusions:Our findings show that An. stephensi is widely distributed in eastern Ethiopia and highlight the need for further surveillance in the southern, western and northern parts of the country and throughout the Horn of Africa.
PTEN loss is a promising prognostic and predictive biomarker in prostate cancer. Because it occurs most commonly via PTEN gene deletion, we developed a clinical-grade, automated and inexpensive immunohistochemical assay to detect PTEN loss. We studied the sensitivity and specificity of PTEN immunohistochemistry relative to 4-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for detection of PTEN gene deletion in a multi-institutional cohort of 731 primary prostate tumors. Intact PTEN immunostaining was 91% specific for absence of PTEN gene deletion, (549/602 tumors with 2 copies of the PTEN gene by FISH showed intact expression of PTEN by immunohistochemistry) and 97% sensitive for presence of homozygous PTEN gene deletion (absent PTEN protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 65/67 tumors with homozygous deletion). PTEN immunohistochemistry was 65% sensitive for presence of hemizygous PTEN gene deletion, with protein loss in 40/62 hemizygous tumors. We reviewed the 53 cases where immunohistochemistry showed PTEN protein loss and FISH showed 2 intact copies of the PTEN gene. On re-review, there was ambiguous immunohistochemistry loss in 6% (3/53) and failure to analyze the same tumor area by both methods in 34% (18/53). Of the remaining discordant cases, 41% (13/32) revealed hemizygous (n=8) or homozygous (n=5) PTEN gene deletion that was focal in most cases (11/13). The remaining 19 cases had 2 copies of the PTEN gene by FISH, representing truly discordant cases. Our automated PTEN immunohistochemistry assay is a sensitive method for detection of homozygous PTEN gene deletions. Immunohistochemistry screening is particularly useful to identify cases with heterogeneous PTEN gene deletion in a subset of tumor glands. Mutations, small insertions or deletions and/or epigenetic or microRNA-mediated mechanisms may lead to PTEN protein loss in tumors with normal or hemizygous PTEN gene copy number.
Background: The movement of malaria vectors into new areas is a growing concern in the efforts to control malaria. The recent report of Anopheles stephensi in eastern Ethiopia has raised the necessity to understand the insecticide resistance status of the vector in the region to better inform vector-based interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate insecticide resistance in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia using two approaches: (1) World Health Organization (WHO) bioassay tests in An. stephensi; and (2) genetic analysis of insecticide resistance genes in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia. Methods: Mosquito larvae and pupae were collected from Kebri Dehar. Insecticide susceptibility of An. stephensi was tested with malathion 5%, bendiocarb 0.1%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.05%, permethrin 0.75%, pirimiphosmethyl 0.25% and DDT 4%, according to WHO standard protocols. In this study, the knockdown resistance locus (kdr) in the voltage gated sodium channel (vgsc) and ace1R locus in the acetylcholinesterase gene (ace-1) were analysed in An. stephensi. Results: All An. stephensi samples were resistant to carbamates, with mortality rates of 23% and 21% for bendiocarb and propoxur, respectively. Adult An. stephensi was also resistant to pyrethroid insecticides with mortality rates 67% for deltamethrin and 53% for permethrin. Resistance to DDT and malathion was detected in An. stephensi with mortality rates of 32% as well as An. stephensi was resistance to pirimiphos-methyl with mortality rates 14%. Analysis of the insecticide resistance loci revealed the absence of kdr L1014F and L1014S mutations and the ace1R G119S mutation. Conclusion: Overall, these findings support that An. stephensi is resistant to several classes of insecticides, most notably pyrethroids. However, the absence of the kdr L1014 gene may suggest non-target site resistance mechanisms. Continuous insecticide resistance monitoring should be carried out in the region to confirm the documented resistance and exploring mechanisms conferring resistance in An. stephensi in Ethiopia.
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm in American men. Although existing biomarkers may detect localized prostate cancer, additional strategies are necessary for improving detection and identifying aggressive disease that may require further intervention. One promising, minimally invasive biomarker is cell-free DNA (cfDNA), which consist of short DNA fragments released into circulation by dying or lysed cells that may reflect underlying cancer. Here we investigated whether differences in cfDNA concentration and cfDNA fragment size could improve the sensitivity for detecting more advanced and aggressive prostate cancer. This study included 268 individuals: 34 healthy controls, 112 men with localized prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), and 122 men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Plasma cfDNA concentration and fragment size were quantified with the Qubit 3.0 and the 2100 Bioanalyzer. The potential relationship between cfDNA concentration or fragment size and localized or mCRPC prostate cancer was evaluated with descriptive statistics, logistic regression, and area under the curve analysis with cross-validation. Plasma cfDNA concentrations were elevated in mCRPC patients in comparison to localized disease (OR5ng/mL = 1.34, P = 0.027) or to being a control (OR5ng/mL = 1.69, P = 0.034). Decreased average fragment size was associated with an increased risk of localized disease compared to controls (OR5bp = 0.77, P = 0.0008). This study suggests that while cfDNA concentration can identify mCRPC patients, it is unable to distinguish between healthy individuals and patients with localized prostate cancer. In addition to PSA, average cfDNA fragment size may be an alternative that can differentiate between healthy individuals and those with localized disease, but the low sensitivity and specificity results in an imperfect diagnostic marker. While quantification of cfDNA may provide a quick, cost-effective approach to help guide treatment decisions in advanced disease, its use is limited in the setting of localized prostate cancer.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked erythrocyte enzyme disorder with relevance to malaria treatment policy. Treatment with the antimalarial primaquine can result in hemolytic anemia in G6PD-deficient patients. With increased interest in primaquine use, it is important to identify G6PD variants in Ethiopia to inform malaria treatment policy. In the present study, mutations in the gene are identified in a sample of patients with malaria in Jimma town in southwest Ethiopia. species of infection were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gel electrophoresis. PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed to observe a portion of the gene where the common mutations (A376G, G202A, and C563T) are found. Molecular analysis revealed that most of the samples were single infections (83.7%). For genotyping, A376G was detected in 23.26% of individuals, whereas G202A and C563T were absent. Three other uncommon mutations were identified: rs782669677 (535G→A), rs370658483, (485 + 37 G→T), and a new mutation at chrX:154535443(C→T). Bioinformatic analysis of these mutations' potential functional impact suggests minimal effect on protein function. The discovery of both common and uncommon mutations contributes to the discussion on G6PD deficiency and appropriate primaquine treatment in Ethiopia.
Background: The movement of malaria vectors into new areas is a growing concern in the efforts to control malaria. The recent report of Anopheles stephensi in eastern Ethiopia has raised the necessity to understand the insecticide resistance status of the vector in the region to better inform vector-based interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate insecticide resistance in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia using two approaches: 1) World Health Organization (WHO) bioassay tests in An. stephensi and 2) genetic analysis of insecticide resistance genes in An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia. Methods: Mosquito larvae and pupae were collected from Kebridehar. Insecticide susceptibility of An. stephensi was tested with malathion 5%, bendiocarb 0.1%, propoxur 0.1%, deltamethrin 0.05%, permethrin 0.75%, Pirimiphos-methyl 0.25% and DDT 4%, according to WHO standard protocols. Results: All An. stephensi samples were resistant to carbamates, with mortality rates 23% and 21% for bendiocarb and propoxur, respectively. Adult An. stephensi was also resistant to pyrethroid insecticides with mortality rates 67% for deltamethrin and 53% for permethrin. Resistance to DDT and malathion was detected in An. stephensi with mortality rates of 32% as well as An. stephensi was resistance to pirimiphos-methyl with mortality rates 14%. Analysis of the voltage gate sodium channel gene (vgsc) revealed the absence of kdr L1014 mutations. Conclusion: Overall, these findings support that An. stephensi is resistant to several classes of insecticides, most notably pyrethroids. However, the absence of the kdr L1014 gene may suggest non-target site resistance mechanisms. Continuous insecticide resistance monitoring should be carried out in the region to confirm the documented resistance and exploring mechanisms conferring resistance in An. stephensi in Ethiopia.
Background The recent finding of a typically non-African Anopheles species in eastern Ethiopia emphasizes the need for detailed species identification and characterization for effective malaria vector surveillance. Molecular approaches increase the accuracy and interoperability of vector surveillance data. To develop effective molecular assays for Anopheles identification, it is important to evaluate different genetic loci for the ability to characterize species and population level variation. Here the utility of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) loci for detection of Anopheles species from understudied regions of eastern Ethiopia was investigated. Methods Adult mosquitoes were collected from the Harewe locality (east) and Meki (east central) Ethiopia. PCR and Sanger sequencing were performed for portions of the ITS2 and COI loci. Both NCBI’s Basic Local Alignment Search tool (BLAST) and phylogenetic analysis using a maximum-likelihood approach were performed to identify species of Anopheles specimens. Results Two species from the east Ethiopian collection, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pretoriensis were identified. Analyses of ITS2 locus resulted in delineation of both species. In contrast, analysis of COI locus could not be used to delineate An. arabiensis from other taxa in Anopheles gambiae complex, but could distinguish An. pretoriensis sequences from sister taxa. Conclusion The lack of clarity from COI sequence analysis highlights potential challenges of species identification within species complexes. These results provide supporting data for the development of molecular assays for delineation of Anopheles in east Ethiopia. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12936-019-2768-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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