Purpose To determine if differences in safety or efficacy exist between balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), vertebroplasty (VP) and non-surgical management (NSM) for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). Methods As of February 1, 2011, a PubMed search (key words: kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty) resulted in 1,587 articles out of which 27 met basic selection criteria (prospective multiple-arm studies with cohorts of C20 patients).This systematic review adheres to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.Results Pain reduction in both BKP (-5.07/10 points, P \ 0.01) and VP (-4.55/10, P \ 0.01) was superior to that for NSM (-2.17/10), while no difference was found between BKP/VP (P = 0.35). Subsequent fractures occurred more frequently in the NSM group (22 %) compared with VP (11 %, P = 0.04) and BKP (11 %, P = 0.01). BKP resulted in greater kyphosis reduction than VP (4.88 vs. 1.7°, P \ 0.01). Quality of life (QOL) improvement showed superiority of BKP over VP (P = 0.04), along with a trend for disability improvement (P = 0.08). Cement extravasation was less frequent in the BKP (P = 0.01). Surgical intervention within the first 7 weeks yielded greater pain reduction than VCFs treated later. Conclusions BKP/VP provided greater pain relief and fewer subsequent fractures than NSM in osteoporotic VCFs. BKP is marginally favored over VP in disability improvement, and significantly favored in QOL improvement. BKP had a lower risk of cement extravasation and resulted in greater kyphosis correction. Despite this analysis being restricted to Level I and II studies, significant heterogeneity suggests that the current literature is delivering inconsistent messages and further trials are needed to delineate confounding variables.
Osteoporosis is a medical condition affecting men and women of different age groups and populations. The compromised bone quality caused by this disease represents an important challenge when a surgical procedure (e.g., spinal fusion) is needed after failure of conservative treatments. Different pedicle screw designs and instrumentation techniques have been explored to enhance spinal device fixation in bone of compromised quality. These include alterations of screw thread design, optimization of pilot hole size for non-self-tapping screws, modification of the implant's trajectory, and bone cement augmentation. While the true benefits and limitations of any procedure may not be realized until they are observed in a clinical setting, axial pullout tests, due in large part to their reproducibility and ease of execution, are commonly used to estimate the device's effectiveness by quantifying the change in force required to remove the screw from the body. The objective of this investigation is to provide an overview of the different pedicle screw designs and the associated surgical techniques either currently utilized or proposed to improve pullout strength in osteoporotic patients. Mechanical comparisons as well as potential advantages and disadvantages of each consideration are provided herein.
Artwork courtesy of Julie Gilbert Pollard. Impatiens by the Creek (detail). Watercolor on paper, 12" × 12". Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is found around and inside the brain and vertebral column. CSF plays a crucial role in the protection and homeostasis of neural tissue. Methods: Key points on the physiology of CSF as well as the diagnostic and treatment options for hydrocephalus are discussed. Results: Understanding the fundamentals of the production, absorption, dynamics, and pathophysiology of CSF is crucial for addressing hydrocephalus. Shunts and endoscopic third ventriculostomy have changed the therapeutic landscape of hydrocephalus. Conclusions: The treatment of hydrocephalus in adults and children represents a large part of everyday practice for the neurologist, both in benign cases and cancer-related diagnoses. Cerebrospinal Fluid Production Approximately 70% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles and the tela choroidea of the third and fourth ventricles. 1 There is also extrachoroidal secretion of CSF by the epithelium of the ependyma and by the capillaries via the blood-brain barrier. Choroid plexus can develop as early as the 41st day in the embryo. 2 In general, the volume of CSF in an adult is approximately 150 mL (125 mL in the subarachnoid space, 25 mL
Arterial bleeding during transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma is known complication. This usually happens due to rupture of intracavernous carotid or delayed hemorrhage due to the carotico-cavernous fistula and/or pseudoaneurysm. There is also evidence that cavernous carotid aneurysms may occur with pituitary tumors, yet largest series failed to demonstrate any link between aneurysm formation and pituitary tumors. Usually such an aneurysm rupture results in formation of carotico-cavernous fistula. However, pituitary apoplexy and even epistaxis have been reported. In this paper we present a patient with recurrent pituitary adenoma and cavernous carotid artery aneurysm, which caused significant hemorrhage during the surgery. Although retrospective analysis of MRI disclosed that the patient had the aneurysm before the first surgery, it remained silent until the second operation. Therefore neurosurgeons should be very susceptive to any signal changes on preoperative MR images, especially in recurrent cases, where normal anatomical relations are disturbed by fibrotic tissue. Also, we reviewed the vascular complication of pituitary surgery based on the literature.
Primary spinal cord tumors represent 4.5% of all central nervous system neoplasms. They are either intradural intramedullary or intradural extramedullary. Intramedullary tumors are predominantly intrinsic gliomas (astrocytomas and ependymomas). Spinal ependymomas can usually be completely removed by separating the tumor from the spinal cord and, when complete, no further therapy is required. Astrocytomas, by contrast, infiltrate the myelon, and therefore surgery is frequently incomplete. Intradural extramedullary tumors are mostly benign (WHO grade 1) and comprise either peripheral nerve sheath tumors (neurofibromas and schwannomas) or meningiomas. Complete resection can be performed on both lesions and is often curative. Radiotherapy is indicated for primary malignant tumors (WHO grade 3 and higher) and for patients in whom surgery is contraindicated. For grade 1 and 2 tumors, the role of radiotherapy is controversial. Chemotherapy is reserved for recurrent primary spinal cord tumors with no other options. However, the lack of clinical trials for these tumors is problematic. Consequently, treatment is similar to that for intracranial histologies. Early recognition of the signs and symptoms of primary spinal cord tumors facilitates early treatment, potentially minimizes neurologic morbidity, and improves outcome. Primary treatment for almost all spinal cord tumors is surgery, with predictors of outcome being preoperative functional status, grade of tumor, and extent of resection.
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