T he contemporary dual stream language model is analogous to the visual system, which is composed of ventral "what" and dorsal "where" streams. 11,31The ventral language stream is involved in semantic (meaning of word) processing of speech, and the dorsal stream controls phonological (word production) processing of speech. 11,59 The arcuate (AF) and superior longitudinal fasciculi (SLF) are involved in the dorsal language stream, while the middle longitudinal (MLF), inferior longitudinal (ILF), inferior frontooccipital (IFOF), and uncinate fasciculi (UF) are associated with the ventral language stream (see Fig. 3C). 15,18,31,59 This study examined the components of the dorsal language stream (SLF and AF) using postmortem fiber dissection and DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) techniques (Figs. 1-3). These anatomical findings were compared with data from clinical-radiological analysis and intraoperative stimulation of white matter (Table 1).The frontoparietal network, called the SLF, was verified and delineated as the dorsal SLF I, the middle SLF II, obJective The aim of this study was to examine the arcuate (AF) and superior longitudinal fasciculi (SLF), which together form the dorsal language stream, using fiber dissection and diffusion imaging techniques in the human brain. methods Twenty-five formalin-fixed brains (50 hemispheres) and 3 adult cadaveric heads, prepared according to the Klingler method, were examined by the fiber dissection technique. The authors' findings were supported with MR tractography provided by the Human Connectome Project, WU-Minn Consortium. The frequencies of gyral distributions were calculated in segments of the AF and SLF in the cadaveric specimens. results The AF has ventral and dorsal segments, and the SLF has 3 segments: SLF I (dorsal pathway), II (middle pathway), and III (ventral pathway). The AF ventral segment connects the middle (88%; all percentages represent the area of the named structure that is connected to the tract) and posterior (100%) parts of the superior temporal gyri and the middle part (92%) of the middle temporal gyrus to the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (96% in pars opercularis, 40% in pars triangularis) and the ventral premotor cortex (84%) by passing deep to the lower part of the supramarginal gyrus (100%). The AF dorsal segment connects the posterior part of the middle (100%) and inferior temporal gyri (76%) to the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (96% in pars opercularis), ventral premotor cortex (72%), and posterior part of the middle frontal gyrus (56%) by passing deep to the lower part of the angular gyrus (100%). coNclusioNs This study depicts the distinct subdivision of the AF and SLF, based on cadaveric fiber dissection and diffusion imaging techniques, to clarify the complicated language processing pathways.
IntroductionFluorescence-guided surgery is one of the rapidly emerging methods of surgical “theranostics.” In this review, we summarize current fluorescence techniques used in neurosurgical practice for brain tumor patients as well as future applications of recent laboratory and translational studies.MethodsReview of the literature.ResultsA wide spectrum of fluorophores that have been tested for brain surgery is reviewed. Beginning with a fluorescein sodium application in 1948 by Moore, fluorescence-guided brain tumor surgery is either routinely applied in some centers or is under active study in clinical trials. Besides the trinity of commonly used drugs (fluorescein sodium, 5-aminolevulinic acid, and indocyanine green), less studied fluorescent stains, such as tetracyclines, cancer-selective alkylphosphocholine analogs, cresyl violet, acridine orange, and acriflavine, can be used for rapid tumor detection and pathological tissue examination. Other emerging agents, such as activity-based probes and targeted molecular probes that can provide biomolecular specificity for surgical visualization and treatment, are reviewed. Furthermore, we review available engineering and optical solutions for fluorescent surgical visualization. Instruments for fluorescent-guided surgery are divided into wide-field imaging systems and hand-held probes. Recent advancements in quantitative fluorescence-guided surgery are discussed.ConclusionWe are standing on the threshold of the era of marker-assisted tumor management. Innovations in the fields of surgical optics, computer image analysis, and molecular bioengineering are advancing fluorescence-guided tumor resection paradigms, leading to cell-level approaches to visualization and resection of brain tumors.
The anatomic distribution of language networks, based on current theories, is explored to present a modern and clinically relevant interpretation of language function. Within this framework, we present current knowledge regarding the known effects of damage to both cortical and subcortical components of these language networks. Ideally, we hope this framework will provide a common language for which to base future clinical studies in human language function.
PurposeTo analyze the pathways to brainstem tumors in childhood, as well as safe entry zones.MethodWe conducted a retrospective study of 207 patients less than 18 years old who underwent brainstem tumor resection by the first author (Cavalheiro, S.) at the Neurosurgical Service and Pediatric Oncology Institute of the São Paulo Federal University from 1991 to 2011.ResultsBrainstem tumors corresponded to 9.1 % of all pediatric tumors operated in that same period. Eleven previously described “safe entry zones” were used. We describe a new safe zone located in the superior ventral pons, which we named supratrigeminal approach. The operative mortality seen in the first 2 months after surgery was 1.9 % (four patients), and the morbidity rate was 21.2 %.ConclusionsAnatomic knowledge of intrinsic and extrinsic brainstem structures, in association with a refined neurosurgical technique assisted by intraoperative monitoring, and surgical planning based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tractography have allowed for wide resection of brainstem lesions with low mortality and acceptable morbidity rates.
Mitochondria are fundamental for metabolic homeostasis in all multicellular eukaryotes. In the nervous system, mitochondria-generated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required to establish appropriate electrochemical gradients and reliable synaptic transmission. Notably, several mitochondrial defects have been identified in central nervous system disorders. Membrane leakage and electrolyte imbalances, pro-apoptotic pathway activation, and mitophagy are among the mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease, as well as ischemic stroke. In this review, we summarize mitochondrial pathways that contribute to disease progression. Further, we discuss pathological states that damaged mitochondria impose on normal nervous system processes and explore new therapeutic approaches to mitochondrial diseases.
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