In order to understand the determinants of human infection by Leishmania chagasi in an urban area, a cross-sectional population based study was conducted using molecular and serologic methods to identify infection. Participants were interviewed using a pre-coded questionnaire. Two criteria were tested to identify risk factors: Model 1-including all participants positive in hybridization by Leishmania donovani complex probe; Model 2-including all participants positive for hybridization and at least one serologic test. In Model 1, the variables associated with infection were: ownership of birds, time spent outside house between 6:00-10:00 PM and garbage not collected. In Model 2, the variables associated with infection were: family with knowledge of the vector, garbage not collected, garbage not removed or buried, ownership of birds and eroded areas in the neighborhood. The risk factors identified were associated with household conditions, presence of animals and the likelihood of contact with phlebotomine sandflies. Key-words: Visceral leishmaniasis. Kala-Azar. Leishmania chagasi. Asymptomatic infection. Risk factors.
RESUMOCom o objetivo de identificar os determinantes da infecção humana por Leishmania chagasi em uma área urbana, foi realizado um estudo seccional de base populacional utilizando-se métodos moleculares e sorológicos para identificar a infecção. Os participantes foram entrevistados utilizando-se questionário pré-codificado. Dois critérios foram testados para identificar os fatores de risco: Modelo 1-incluindo todos os participantes positivos na hibridização com sonda para o complexo Leishmania donovani; Modelo 2-incluindo todos os participantes positivos na hibridização e em pelo menos um teste sorológico. No Modelo 1, as variáveis associadas à infecção foram: criar pássaros, encontrar-se fora de casa entre 18:00-22:00h e não ter o lixo coletado. No Modelo 2, as variáveis associadas à infecção foram: família conhecer o vetor, não ter o lixo coletado, lixo não removido ou queimado, criar pássaros, proximidade de áreas erodidas. Os fatores de risco identificados foram associados às condições das moradias, presença de animais e probabilidade de contato com flebotomíneos. Palavras-chaves: Leishmaniose visceral. Calazar. Leishmania chagasi. Infecção assintomática. Fatores de risco.
Opportunistic diseases in HIV-infected patients have changed since the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). This study aims at evaluating the frequency of associated diseases in patients with AIDS admitted to an university hospital of Brazil, before and after HAART. The medical records of 342 HIV-infected patients were reviewed and divided into two groups: group 1 comprised 247 patients before HAART and, group 2, 95 patients after HAART. The male-to-female rate dropped from 5:1 to 2:1for HIV infection. There was an increase in the prevalence of tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis, with a decrease in Kaposi's sarcoma, histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis. A reduction of in-hospital mortality (42.0% vs. 16.9%; p = 0.00002) has also occurred. An agreement between the main clinical diagnoses and autopsy findings was observed in 10 out of 20 cases (50%). Two patients with disseminated schistosomiasis and 2 with paracoccidioidomycosis are reported. Overall, except for cerebral toxoplasmosis, it has been noticed a smaller proportion of opportunistic conditions related to severe immunosuppression in the post HAART group. There was also a significant reduction in the in-hospital mortality, possibly reflecting improvement in the treatment of the HIV infection.
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