Overall, drought and unfavourable temperatures are the major climatic limitations for coffee production. These limitations are expected to become increasingly important in several coffee growing regions due to the recognized changes in global climate, and also because coffee cultivation has spread towards marginal lands, where water shortage and unfavourable temperatures constitute major constraints to coffee yield. In this review, we examine the impacts of such limitations on the physiology, and consequently on the production of mainly Coffea arabica and C. canephora, which account for about 99 % of the world coffee bean production. The first section deals with climatic factors and the coffee plant's requirements. The importance of controlling oxidative stress for the expression of drought and cold tolerance abilities is emphasized in the second section. In the third section, we examine the impacts of drought on cell-water relations, stomatal behaviour and water use, photosynthesis and crop yield, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, root growth and characteristics, and on drought tolerance. In the fourth section, the impacts of low positive and high temperatures on coffee physiology are discussed; some insights about effects of negative temperatures are also presented. Finally, the last section deals with shading in harsh environments as a mean of buffering climatic fluctuations, as well as of increasing environmental sustainability in coffee exploitation. Key words: Coffea, chilling, frost, heat, photosynthesis, water deficit, water use, yield.Impactos da seca e do estresse térmico sobre a fisiologia e a produção do cafeeiro: uma revisão: De modo geral, seca e temperaturas desfavoráveis são as principais limitações climáticas à produção do cafeeiro. A importância de tais limitações deve aumentar, em função das mudanças reconhecidas no clima global e, também, porque a cafeicultura vem sendo expandida para regiões marginais onde secas e temperaturas desfavoráveis se constituem em grandes limitações à produção do café. Nesta revisão, analisam-se os impactos de tais limitações sobre a fisiologia, e por extensão sobre a produção, principalmente de Coffea arabica e C. canephora, que respondem por cerca de 99 % da produção mundial. A primeira seção deste trabalho aborda as exigências climáticas do cafeeiro. Na segunda seção, enfatiza-se a importância do controle do estresse oxidativo para a expressão da capacidade de tolerância à seca e ao frio. Na terceira, examinam-se os impactos da seca sobre as relações hídricas em nível celular, comportamento estomático e uso da água, fotossíntese e produção, metabolismo do carbono e do nitrogênio, caracterís-ticas e respostas de crescimento das raízes, além da tolerância à seca. Na quarta seção, discutem-se impactos tanto de baixas temperaturas positivas como de altas temperaturas sobre a fisiologia do cafeeiro; apresentam-se, também, algumas informações sobre efeitos de temperaturas negativas. Finalmente, na última seção, discute-se sobre o sombreamento como um meio de tamponament...
The tropical coffee crop has been predicted to be threatened by future climate changes and global warming. However, the real biological effects of such changes remain unknown. Therefore, this work aims to link the physiological and biochemical responses of photosynthesis to elevated air [CO2 ] and temperature in cultivated genotypes of Coffea arabica L. (cv. Icatu and IPR108) and Coffea canephora cv. Conilon CL153. Plants were grown for ca. 10 months at 25/20°C (day/night) and 380 or 700 μl CO2 l(-1) and then subjected to temperature increase (0.5°C day(-1) ) to 42/34°C. Leaf impacts related to stomatal traits, gas exchanges, C isotope composition, fluorescence parameters, thylakoid electron transport and enzyme activities were assessed at 25/20, 31/25, 37/30 and 42/34°C. The results showed that (1) both species were remarkably heat tolerant up to 37/30°C, but at 42/34°C a threshold for irreversible nonstomatal deleterious effects was reached. Impairments were greater in C. arabica (especially in Icatu) and under normal [CO2 ]. Photosystems and thylakoid electron transport were shown to be quite heat tolerant, contrasting to the enzymes related to energy metabolism, including RuBisCO, which were the most sensitive components. (2) Significant stomatal trait modifications were promoted almost exclusively by temperature and were species dependent. Elevated [CO2 ], (3) strongly mitigated the impact of temperature on both species, particularly at 42/34°C, modifying the response to supra-optimal temperatures, (4) promoted higher water-use efficiency under moderately higher temperature (31/25°C) and (5) did not provoke photosynthetic downregulation. Instead, enhancements in [CO2 ] strengthened photosynthetic photochemical efficiency, energy use and biochemical functioning at all temperatures. Our novel findings demonstrate a relevant heat resilience of coffee species and that elevated [CO2 ] remarkably mitigated the impact of heat on coffee physiology, therefore playing a key role in this crop sustainability under future climate change scenarios.
Modeling studies have predicted that coffee crop will be endangered by future global warming, but recent reports highlighted that high [CO2] can mitigate heat impacts on coffee. This work aimed at identifying heat protective mechanisms promoted by CO2 in Coffea arabica (cv. Icatu and IPR108) and Coffea canephora cv. Conilon CL153. Plants were grown at 25/20°C (day/night), under 380 or 700 μL CO2 L−1, and then gradually submitted to 31/25, 37/30, and 42/34°C. Relevant heat tolerance up to 37/30°C for both [CO2] and all coffee genotypes was observed, likely supported by the maintenance or increase of the pools of several protective molecules (neoxanthin, lutein, carotenes, α-tocopherol, HSP70, raffinose), activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), and the upregulated expression of some genes (ELIP, Chaperonin 20). However, at 42/34°C a tolerance threshold was reached, mostly in the 380-plants and Icatu. Adjustments in raffinose, lutein, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and HSP70 pools, and the upregulated expression of genes related to protective (ELIPS, HSP70, Chape 20, and 60) and antioxidant (CAT, CuSOD2, APX Cyt, APX Chl) proteins were largely driven by temperature. However, enhanced [CO2] maintained higher activities of GR (Icatu) and CAT (Icatu and IPR108), kept (or even increased) the Cu,Zn-SOD, APX, and CAT activities, and promoted a greater upregulation of those enzyme genes, as well as those related to HSP70, ELIPs, Chaperonins in CL153, and Icatu. These changes likely favored the maintenance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at controlled levels and contributed to mitigate of photosystem II photoinhibition at the highest temperature. Overall, our results highlighted the important role of enhanced [CO2] on the coffee crop acclimation and sustainability under predicted future global warming scenarios.
Coffee is one of the world’s most traded agricultural products. Modeling studies have predicted that climate change will have a strong impact on the suitability of current cultivation areas, but these studies have not anticipated possible mitigating effects of the elevated atmospheric [CO2] because no information exists for the coffee plant. Potted plants from two genotypes of Coffea arabica and one of C. canephora were grown under controlled conditions of irradiance (800 μmol m-2 s-1), RH (75%) and 380 or 700 μL CO2 L-1 for 1 year, without water, nutrient or root development restrictions. In all genotypes, the high [CO2] treatment promoted opposite trends for stomatal density and size, which decreased and increased, respectively. Regardless of the genotype or the growth [CO2], the net rate of CO2 assimilation increased (34-49%) when measured at 700 than at 380 μL CO2 L-1. This result, together with the almost unchanged stomatal conductance, led to an instantaneous water use efficiency increase. The results also showed a reinforcement of photosynthetic (and respiratory) components, namely thylakoid electron transport and the activities of RuBisCo, ribulose 5-phosphate kinase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, what may have contributed to the enhancements in the maximum rates of electron transport, carboxylation and photosynthetic capacity under elevated [CO2], although these responses were genotype dependent. The photosystem II efficiency, energy driven to photochemical events, non-structural carbohydrates, photosynthetic pigment and membrane permeability did not respond to [CO2] supply. Some alterations in total fatty acid content and the unsaturation level of the chloroplast membranes were noted but, apparently, did not affect photosynthetic functioning. Despite some differences among the genotypes, no clear species-dependent responses to elevated [CO2] were observed. Overall, as no apparent sign of photosynthetic down-regulation was found, our data suggest that Coffea spp. plants may successfully cope with high [CO2] under the present experimental conditions.
Growing water restrictions associated with climate changes constitute daunting challenges to crop performance. This study unveils the impacts of moderate (MWD) or severe (SWD) water deficit, and their interaction with air [CO2], on the photosynthetic apparatus of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner cv. Conilon Clone 153 (CL153) and Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatu. Seven year-old potted plants grown under 380 (aCO2) or 700 μl l −1 (eCO2) [CO2] gradually reached predawn water potentials between −1.6 and −2.1 MPa (MWD), and below −3.5 MPa (SWD). Under drought, stomata closure was chiefly related to abscisic acid (ABA) rise. Increasing drought severity progressively affected gas exchange and fluorescence parameters in both genotypes, with non-stomatal limitations becoming gradually dominating, especially regarding the photochemical and biochemical components of CL153 SWD plants. In contrast, Icatu plants were highly tolerant to SWD, with minor, if any, negative impacts on the potential photosynthetic functioning and components (e.g., Amax, Fv/Fm, electron carriers, photosystems (PSs) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) activities). Besides, drought-stressed Icatu plants displayed increased abundance of a large set of proteins associated with the photosynthetic apparatus (PSs, light-harvesting complexes, cyclic electron flow, RuBisCO activase) regardless of [CO2]. Single eCO2 did not promote stomatal and photosynthetic down-regulation in both genotypes. Instead, eCO2 increased photosynthetic performance, moderately reinforced photochemical (PSs activity, electron carriers) and biochemical (RuBisCO, ribulose-5-phosphate kinase) components, whereas photoprotective mechanisms and protein abundance remained mostly unaffected. In both genotypes, under MWD, eCO2 superimposition delayed stress severity and promoted photosynthetic functioning with lower energy dissipation and PSII impacts, whereas stomatal closure was decoupled from increases in ABA. In SWD plants, most impacts on the photosynthetic performance were reduced by eCO2, especially in the moderately drought affected CL153 genotype, although maintaining RuBisCO as the most sensitive component, deserving special breeder’s attention to improve coffee sustainability under future climate scenarios.
Coffee is one of the most important global crops and provides a livelihood to millions of people living in developing countries. Coffee species have been described as being highly sensitive to climate change, as largely deduced from modeling studies based on predictions of rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. Here, we discuss the physiological responses of the coffee tree in the context of present and ongoing climate changes, including drought, heat, and light stresses, and interactions between these factors. We also summarize recent insights on the physiological and agronomic performance of coffee at elevated atmospheric CO concentrations and highlight the key role of CO in mitigating the harmful effects of heat stress. Evidence is shown suggesting that warming, per se, may be less harmful to coffee suitability than previously estimated, at least under the conditions of an adequate water supply. Finally, we discuss several mitigation strategies to improve crop performance in a changing world.
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