The work that is presented in this paper is part of an ongoing study on the relationship between airspace structure and capacity. The present paper investigates the degree of structuring needed to maximize capacity for decentralized en-route airspace. To this end, four decentralized en-route airspace concepts, which vary in terms of the number of constrained degrees of freedom, were compared using fast-time simulations, for both nominal and non-nominal conditions. The airspace structure-capacity relationship was studied from the effect of multiple traffic demand densities on airspace metrics. The results indicated that structuring methods that over-constrained the horizontal path of aircraft reduced capacity, as traffic demand displays no predominant patterns in the horizontal dimension for decentralization. The results also showed that capacity was maximized when a vertical segmentation of airspace was used to separate traffic with different travel directions at different flight levels. This mode of structuring improved performance over completely unstructured airspace by reducing relative velocities between aircraft cruising at the same altitude, while allowing direct horizontal routes.
Air traffic simulations serve as common practice to evaluate different concepts and methods for air transportation studies. The aircraft performance model is a key element that supports these simulation-based studies. It is also an important component for simulation-independent studies, such as air traffic optimization and prediction studies. Commonly, contemporary studies have to rely on proprietary aircraft performance models that restrict the redistribution of the data and code. To promote openness and research comparability, an alternative open performance model would be beneficial for the air transportation research community. In this paper, we introduce an open aircraft performance model (OpenAP). It is an open-source model that is based on a number of our previous studies, which were focused on different components of the aircraft performance. The unique characteristic of OpenAP is that it was built upon open aircraft surveillance data and open literature models. The model is composed of four main components, including aircraft and engine properties, kinematic performances, dynamic performances, and utility libraries. Alongside the performance model, we are publishing an open-source toolkit to facilitate the use of this model. The main objective of this paper is to describe each main component, their connections, and how they can be used for simulation and research in practice. Finally, we analyzed the performance of OpenAP by comparing it with an existing performance model and sample flight data.
The availability of low-cost Automatic Dependent Surveillance-broadcast (ADS-B) receivers has given researchers the ability to make use of large amounts of aircraft state data. This data is being used to support air transportation research in performance study, trajectory prediction, procedure analysis, and airspace design. However, aircraft states contained in ADS-B messages are limited. More performance parameters are downlinked as ModeS Comm-B replies, upon automatic and periodic interrogation of air traffic control secondary surveillance radar. These replies reveal aircraft airspeed, turn rate, target altitude, and so on. They can be intercepted using the same 1090 MHz receiver that receives ADS-B messages. However, a third-party observer does not know the interrogations, which originated the Comm-B replies. Thus, it is difficult to decode these messages without knowing the type and source aircraft. Furthermore, the parity check also cannot be performed without knowing the interrogations. In this paper, we propose a new heuristic-probabilistic method to decode Comm-B replies, and to check the correctness of the messages. Based on a reference dataset provided by air traffic control of the Netherlands, the method yields a success rate of 97.68% with an error below 0.01%. The performance of the proposed method is further examined with data from eight different regions of the world. The implementation of the inference and decoding process, pyModeS, is shared as an open-source library.
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Abstract-In the context of the NextGen and SESAR future airspace programmes, this paper describes a concept for an Airborne Separation Assurance (ASAS) display, that is designed to aid pilots in their task of self-separation, by visualizing the possibilities for conflict resolution that the airspace provides. This work is part of an ongoing research towards an ecological design of a separation assistance interface that can present all the relevant properties of the spatio-temporal separation problem. A work-domain analysis is described from which several perspective projections of traffic properties and travel constraints are derived. A display concept is proposed that presents heading and altitude action possibilities in a flight-path angle -track angle action space. Key issues in the current design are discussed, with recommendations for future work.
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