Our findings suggest that although deep CMBs are mainly linked to subcortical SVD, both subcortical SVD and amyloid-related pathologies (eg, CAA) contribute to the pathogenesis of lobar CMBs, at least in subjects with mixed lobar and deep CMBs. Furthermore, subcortical SVD and amyloid-related pathologies interact to increase the risk of lobar CMBs.
Two soluble forms of novel glutamate dehydrogenase isoproteins, designated GDH I and GDH 11, have been purified from bovine brain. GDH I and GDH I1 were separated on a hydroxyapatite column and eluted by a step gradient at different phosphate concentrations (30 mM and 50 rnM for GDH I and GDH 11, respectively). The preparations were homogeneous on SDS/PAGE. GDH I and GDH II showed similarity in their molecular sizes and are composed of six identical subunits having a molecular size of 57500 Da. Differences between the biochemical properties of GDH I and GDH 11, such as N-terminal amino acid sequences of intact and tryptic-digested enzymes, kinetic parameters, optimum pH and heat stability, were extensively examined in both reductive amination of a-oxoglutarate and oxidative deamination of glutamate. The different effects of ADP on GDH isoproteins were also studied under various conditions. These results indicate that GDH I and GDH 11, isolated from bovine brain, are novel and distinct polypeptides.
It has been suggested that reactive lysine residue(s) may play an important role in the catalytic activities of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). There are, however, conflicting views as to whether the lysine residues are involved in Schiff's base formation with catalytic intermediates, stabilization of negatively charged groups or the carbonyl group of 2-oxoglutarate during catalysis, or some other function. We have expanded on these speculations by constructing a series of cassette mutations at Lys130, a residue that has been speculated to be responsible for the activity of GDH and the inactivation of GDH by pyridoxal 5 H -phosphate (PLP). For these studies, a 1557-bp gene that encodes human GDH has been synthesized and inserted into Escherichia coli expression vectors. The mutant enzymes containing Glu, Gly, Met, Ser, or Tyr at position 130, as well as the wild-type human GDH encoded by the synthetic gene, were efficiently expressed as a soluble protein and are indistinguishable from that isolated from human and bovine tissues. Despite an approximately 400-fold decrease in the respective apparent V max of the Lys130 mutant enzymes, apparent K m values for NADH and 2-oxoglutarate were almost unchanged, suggesting the direct involvement of Lys130 in catalysis rather than in the binding of coenzyme or substrate. Unlike the wild-type GDH, the mutant enzymes were unable to interact with PLP, indicating that Lys130 plays an important role in PLP binding. The results with analogs of PLP suggest that the aldehyde moiety of PLP, but not the phosphate moiety, is required for efficient binding to GDH.
Abstract:Trichostrongylus eggs observed in cellophane-thick smears are difficult, in practice, to distinguish from hookworm eggs. In order to overcome these limitations, a molecular approach was conducted. A Trichostrongylus colubriformis adult worm was obtained from a human in Laos, which was identified morphologically. ITS-1 sequence of this worm was determined, and found to be most similar with that of T. colubriformis among the Trichostrongylus spp. reported so far. Then, this sequence was compared with those of human hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus, and species-specific oligonucleotide primers were designed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using these primers evidenced specifically amplified PCR products of Trichostrongylus sp., A. duodenale and N. americanus from the eggs of each (520 bp, 690 bp, and 870 bp, respectively). A species-specific PCR technique can be developed in order to study the epidemiology of Trichostrongylus spp. and hookworms in endemic areas.
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