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Oncolytic viruses are genetically altered replication-competent viruses that infect, and reproduce in, cancer cells but do not harm normal cells. On lysis of the infected cells, the newly formed viruses burst out and infect other tumor cells. Experiments with injecting mutant herpes simplex virus 1 (hrR3) into glioma implanted in brains of rats show lack of efficacy in eradicating the cancer. This failure is attributed to interference by the immune system. Initial pretreatment with immunosuppressive agent cyclophosphamide reduces the percentage of immune cells. We introduce a mathematical model and use it to determine how different protocols of cyclophosphamide treatment and how increased burst size of the mutated virus will affect the growth of the cancer. One of our conclusions is that the diameter of the cancer will decrease from 4 mm to eventually 1 mm if the burst size of the virus is triple that which is currently available. The effect of repeated cyclophosphamide treatment is to maintain a low density of uninfected cells in the tumor, thus reducing the probability of migration of tumor cells to other locations in the brain. (Cancer Res 2006; 66(4): 2314-9)
The replicability of an oncolytic virus is measured by its burst size. The burst size is the number of new viruses coming out from a lysis of an infected tumor cell. Some clinical evidences show that the burst size of an oncolytic virus is a defining parameter for the success of virotherapy. This article analyzes a basic mathematical model that includes burst size for oncolytic virotherapy. The analysis of the model shows that there are two threshold values of the burst size: below the first threshold, the tumor always grows to its maximum (carrying capacity) size; while passing this threshold, there is a locally stable positive equilibrium solution appearing through transcritical bifurcation; while at or above the second threshold, there exits one or three families of periodic solutions arising from Hopf bifurcations. The study suggests that the tumor load can drop to a undetectable level either during the oscillation or when the burst size is large enough.
In this article we study algebraic structures of function spaces defined by graphs and state spaces equipped with Gibbs measures by associating evolution algebras. We give a constructive description of associating evolution algebras to the function spaces (cell spaces) defined by graphs and state spaces and Gibbs measure µ. For finite graphs we find some evolution subalgebras and other useful properties of the algebras. We obtain a structure theorem for evolution algebras when graphs are finite and connected. We prove that for a fixed finite graph, the function spaces has a unique algebraic structure since all evolution algebras are isomorphic to each other for whichever Gibbs measures assigned. When graphs are infinite graphs then our construction allows a natural introduction of thermodynamics in studying of several systems of biology, physics and mathematics by theory of evolution algebras.
The complexity of the immune responses is a major challenge in current virotherapy. This study incorporates the innate immune response into our basic model for virotherapy and investigates how the innate immunity affects the outcome of virotherapy. The viral therapeutic dynamics is largely determined by the viral burst size, relative innate immune killing rate, and relative innate immunity decay rate. The innate immunity may complicate virotherapy in the way of creating more equilibria when the viral burst size is not too big, while the dynamics is similar to the system without innate immunity when the viral burst size is big.
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