Objective To evaluate sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes at varying cardiovascular and renal risk. Design Network meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL up to 11 August 2020. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials comparing SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists with placebo, standard care, or other glucose lowering treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes with follow up of 24 weeks or longer. Studies were screened independently by two reviewers for eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Main outcome measures Frequentist random effects network meta-analysis was carried out and GRADE (grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation) used to assess evidence certainty. Results included estimated absolute effects of treatment per 1000 patients treated for five years for patients at very low risk (no cardiovascular risk factors), low risk (three or more cardiovascular risk factors), moderate risk (cardiovascular disease), high risk (chronic kidney disease), and very high risk (cardiovascular disease and kidney disease). A guideline panel provided oversight of the systematic review. Results 764 trials including 421 346 patients proved eligible. All results refer to the addition of SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists to existing diabetes treatment. Both classes of drugs lowered all cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and kidney failure (high certainty evidence). Notable differences were found between the two agents: SGLT-2 inhibitors reduced mortality and admission to hospital for heart failure more than GLP-1 receptor agonists, and GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced non-fatal stroke more than SGLT-2 inhibitors (which appeared to have no effect). SGLT-2 inhibitors caused genital infection (high certainty), whereas GLP-1 receptor agonists might cause severe gastrointestinal events (low certainty). Low certainty evidence suggested that SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists might lower body weight. Little or no evidence was found for the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists on limb amputation, blindness, eye disease, neuropathic pain, or health related quality of life. The absolute benefits of these drugs vary substantially across patients from low to very high risk of cardiovascular and renal outcomes (eg, SGLT-2 inhibitors resulted in 5 to 48 fewer deaths in 1000 patients over five years; see interactive decision support tool ( https://magicevidence.org/match-it/200820dist/#!/ ) for all outcomes. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes, SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists reduced cardiovascular and renal outcomes, with notable differences in benefits and harms. Absolute benefits are determined by individual risk profiles of patients, with clear implications for clinical practice, as reflected in the BMJ Rapid Recommendations directly informed by this systematic review. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42019153180.
BackgroundThe incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), commonly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, is increasing worldwide. However, the specific mechanisms that mediate the progression from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the timedependent changes of triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the blood and liver over 24 weeks in high-fat diet-induced obese rats with NAFLD and to clarify the role of high FFA levels in the progression of liver injury.MethodsMale Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 30 per group): the Control group, fed standard chow; the High-fat diet (HFD) group, fed high-fat chow; and the Acipimox group, fed an HFD plus acipimox (100 mg/kg/d, ig) for 8, 16 and 24 weeks. After treatment, blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical analyses, western blotting analysis and a histopathological study.ResultsThe visceral fat/weight and liver/body weight ratios were higher in both the HFD and Acipimox groups than in the Control group. The TG and FFA concentrations in blood and liver were increased in the HFD group and associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and macro/microvesicular steatosis on hepatic fragments. Although the TG levels in the liver were similar between the HFD and Acipimox groups (p > 0.05), the FFA concentrations in the blood and liver were much lower in the latter group (p < 0.05). The Acipimox group showed normal ALT and MDA levels as well as less severe hepatic histological changes than did the HFD group (NAFLD activity score: 2.14 ± 0.14, 2.43 ± 0.20 and 2.63 ± 0.26 at 8, 16 and 24 weeks, respectively; p < 0.05 versus the HFD group at 24 weeks). The diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) protein levels were similar between the HFD and Acipimox groups (p > 0.05), but the protein expression level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT-1a) was higher in the Acipimox group.ConclusionsLiver TG accumulation does not cause cellular injury in the liver; rather, FFAs or their metabolites are responsible for liver injury via increased oxidative stress. It is suggested that the therapeutic efforts to prevent non-alcoholic liver injury progression should be focused on reducing the burden of fatty acids transported to the liver or those being synthesized in the liver.
Autophagy is activated during nutritionally depleted or hypoxic conditions to facilitate cell survival. Because growth plate is an avascular and hypoxic tissue, autophagy may have a crucial role during chondrogenesis; however, the functional role and underlying mechanism of autophagy in regulation of growth plate remains elusive. In this study, we generated Atg7 (Atg7cKO) mice to explore the role of autophagy during endochondral ossification. Atg7cKO mice exhibited growth retardation associated with reduced chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, and increased chondrocyte apoptosis. Meanwhile, we observed that Atg7 ablation mainly induced the PERK-ATF4-CHOP axis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in growth plate chondrocytes. Although Atg7 ablation induced ER stress in growth plate chondrocytes, the addition of phenylbutyric acid (PBA), a chemical chaperone known to attenuate ER stress, partly neutralized such effects of Atg7 ablation on longitudinal bone growth, indicating the causative interaction between autophagy and ER stress in growth plate. Consistent with these findings in vivo, we also observed that Atg7 ablation in cultured chondrocytes resulted in defective autophagy, elevated ER stress, decreased chondrocytes proliferation, impaired expression of col10a1, MMP-13, and VEGFA for chondrocyte differentiation, and increased chondrocyte apoptosis, while such effects were partly nullified by reduction of ER stress with PBA. In addition, Atg7 ablation-mediated impaired chondrocyte function (chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis) was partly reversed in CHOP cells, indicating the causative role of the PERK-ATF4-CHOP axis of the ER stress response in the action of autophagy deficiency in chondrocytes. In conclusion, our findings indicate that autophagy deficiency may trigger ER stress in growth plate chondrocytes and contribute to growth retardation, thus implicating autophagy as an important regulator during chondrogenesis and providing new insights into the clinical potential of autophagy in cartilage homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Androgens are known to modulate the skeletal muscle proliferation and differentiation processes. Recent in vitro studies have shown that dihydrotestosterone and anabolic steroids have functions in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of the mouse skeletal muscle myoblast C2C12 cell line through the classical androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. But there are contradictory reports that androgen plays its roles through the membrane signaling pathways. In the present study, we show that there is no expression of the classical AR in L6 cells both at gene and protein levels. We then investigated the effects of testosterone (T) on L6 cell proliferation and differentiation. The results show that T promotes L6 cell proliferation after a 24 h treatment, which followed by enhancing L6 cell differentiation, but these effects are not inhibited by flutamide (F), an antagonist of intracellular AR. Further, we tested the effect of testosterone covalently bounding to albumin (T-BSA), which does not cross the plasma membrane. The results demonstrate that T-BSA and free T have similar effects on L6 cell proliferation and differentiation, and that these effects involve G protein-coupled receptors and different downstream pathways. The L6 cell proliferation induced by T involves PKC and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and cell differentiation happens via the PKA signaling pathway. These results suggest that T promotes cell proliferation and differentiation via G protein-coupled receptors and different downstream pathways in the L6 cell line, although the related molecular mechanisms need to be elucidated in future studies.
BackgroundInsulin resistance has been independently related to heart failure. However, the specific mechanisms of high FFA levels in the pathophysiology of heart failure in insulin-resistant states are remain largely unclear. This study investigated whether elevated circulating free fatty acids (FFA) levels result in impaired cardiac structure and function in vivo via insulin-related signaling pathways in myocardium.MethodsMale Wistar rats were randomly divided into the intralipid group (20% intralipid plus heparin infusion) and the control group (glycerol infusion). Blood samples were collected before and after 6-, 12-, and 24-h infusions. Cardiac structure and function were measured using echocardiography. Maximum velocity of myocardial contraction (+dP/dt max) and diastole (−dP/dt max) were measured using a physiological polygraph in vivo. Heart tissues were collected for western blotting.ResultsCompared with the control group, plasma FFA, plasma glucose, and serum insulin levels increased significantly in the intralipid group. With increasing infusion time, cardiac function in the intralipid group decreased gradually compared with the control group. After a 24-h infusion, early (E’, cm/s) diastolic peak velocities and (−dP/dt max) decreased significantly. Protein expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), the serine/threonine kinase Akt, and phosphorylated Akt in myocardium increased after a 6-h infusion and decreased significantly after a 24-h infusion in the intralipid group. Protein expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), Adenosine 5′-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphorylated AMPK(p-AMPK), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in myocardium gradually decreased in the intralipid group.ConclusionsElevated FFA levels may impair cardiac function and cardiac dysfunction might result from myocardial insulin resistance with significant changes to PI3K-Akt-GLUT4 and AMPK-eNOS signaling pathways with increasing FFA levels.
No information is known concerning the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and its co-localization with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) in the developing pituitary of sheep fetus. In the present study, we detected AR expression and its co-localization with ERalpha in the anterior pituitary of sheep fetus from day 60 of gestation to the postnatal by dual immunochemistry. The results showed that both AR immunoreactivity (AR-ir) and ERalpha immunoreactivity (ERalpha-ir) were predominantly localized in the nuclei of LH positive gonadotropes. The cell counting results showed that the percentage of the anterior pituitary cells expressing AR fluctuated from 13.51 +/- 0.92 to 17.05 +/- 1.83% during the examined stages, but there were no significant differences between sexes and among ages examined (P > 0.05). However, the proportion of AR-ir cells containing LH markedly increased from day 60 of gestation to the neonatal (P < 0.05). The percentage of AR-ir cells expressing ERalpha-ir significantly increased from day 60 of gestation to the neonatal, respectively (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were seen between genders at each stage examined. These results indicate that both AR and ERalpha are mainly expressed in the gonadotropes of anterior pituitary gland of sheep fetuses, whereas the functions and interaction of AR and ERalpha expressions in the developing pituitary gland are required to be elucidated further.
The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling system is involved in numbers of stress-related physiological and pathological responses，including its inhibiting effects on estradiol (E2) synthesis and follicular development in the ovary. In addition, there are reports that microRNAs (miRNAs) can control the function of animal reproductive system. The aim of present study was to investigate the functions of miR-375 and the relationship between miR-375 and CRH signaling molecules in the porcine ovary. First, our common PCR results show that miR-375 and the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) are expressed in porcine ovary, whereas CRH receptor 2 (CRHR2) is not detected. We further have located the cell types of miR-375 and CRHR1 by in situ hybridization (ISH), and the results show that miR-375 is located only in the granulosa cells, whereas CRHR1 is positive in all of granulosa cells and oocytes, inferring that miR-375 and CRHR1 are co-localized in granulosa cells. Second, we show that overexpression of miR-375 in cultured granulosa cells suppresses the E2 production, while miR-375 knockdown demonstrates the opposite result. Besides, our in vitro results demonstrate that miR-375 mediates the signaling pathway of CRH inhibiting E2 synthesis. Finally, our data show that the action of miR-375 is accomplished by directly binding to the 3'UTR of specificity protein1 (SP1) mRNA to decrease the SP1 protein level. Thus, we conclude that miR-375 is a key factor in regulating E2 synthesis by mediating the CRH signaling pathway.
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