This paper proposes a novel algorithm for multiview stereopsis that outputs a dense set of small rectangular patches covering the surfaces visible in the images. Stereopsis is implemented as a match, expand, and filter procedure, starting from a sparse set of matched keypoints, and repeatedly expanding these before using visibility constraints to filter away false matches. The keys to the performance of the proposed algorithm are effective techniques for enforcing local photometric consistency and global visibility constraints. Simple but effective methods are also proposed to turn the resulting patch model into a mesh which can be further refined by an algorithm that enforces both photometric consistency and regularization constraints. The proposed approach automatically detects and discards outliers and obstacles and does not require any initialization in the form of a visual hull, a bounding box, or valid depth ranges. We have tested our algorithm on various data sets including objects with fine surface details, deep concavities, and thin structures, outdoor scenes observed from a restricted set of viewpoints, and "crowded" scenes where moving obstacles appear in front of a static structure of interest. A quantitative evaluation on the Middlebury benchmark shows that the proposed method outperforms all others submitted so far for four out of the six data sets.
Sparse coding-that is, modelling data vectors as sparse linear combinations of basis elements-is widely used in machine learning, neuroscience, signal processing, and statistics. This paper focuses on learning the basis set, also called dictionary, to adapt it to specific data, an approach that has recently proven to be very effective for signal reconstruction and classification in the audio and image processing domains. This paper proposes a new online optimization algorithm for dictionary learning, based on stochastic approximations, which scales up gracefully to large datasets with millions of training samples. A proof of convergence is presented, along with experiments with natural images demonstrating that it leads to faster performance and better dictionaries than classical batch algorithms for both small and large datasets.
This article introduces a texture representation suitable for recognizing images of textured surfaces under a wide range of transformations, including viewpoint changes and non-rigid deformations. At the feature extraction stage, a sparse set of affine Harris and Laplacian regions is found in the image. Each of these regions can be thought of as a texture element having a characteristic elliptic shape and a distinctive appearance pattern. This pattern is captured in an affine-invariant fashion via a process of shape normalization followed by the computation of two novel descriptors, the spin image and the RIFT descriptor. When affine invariance is not required, the original elliptical shape serves as an additional discriminative feature for texture recognition. The proposed approach is evaluated in retrieval and classification tasks using the entire Brodatz database and a publicly available collection of 1000 photographs of textured surfaces taken from different viewpoints.
Modeling data with linear combinations of a few elements from a learned dictionary has been the focus of much recent research in machine learning, neuroscience, and signal processing. For signals such as natural images that admit such sparse representations, it is now well established that these models are well suited to restoration tasks. In this context, learning the dictionary amounts to solving a large-scale matrix factorization problem, which can be done efficiently with classical optimization tools. The same approach has also been used for learning features from data for other purposes, e.g., image classification, but tuning the dictionary in a supervised way for these tasks has proven to be more difficult. In this paper, we present a general formulation for supervised dictionary learning adapted to a wide variety of tasks, and present an efficient algorithm for solving the corresponding optimization problem. Experiments on handwritten digit classification, digital art identification, nonlinear inverse image problems, and compressed sensing demonstrate that our approach is effective in large-scale settings, and is well suited to supervised and semi-supervised classification, as well as regression tasks for data that admit sparse representations.
International audienceIn this paper, we address the problem of estimating and removing non-uniform motion blur from a single blurry image. We propose a deep learning approach to predicting the probabilistic distribution of motion blur at the patch level using a convolutional neural network (CNN). We further extend the candidate set of motion kernels predicted by the CNN using carefully designed image rotations. A Markov random field model is then used to infer a dense non-uniform motion blur field enforcing motion smoothness. Finally, motion blur is removed by a non-uniform de-blurring model using patch-level image prior. Experimental evaluations show that our approach can effectively estimate and remove complex non-uniform motion blur that is not handled well by previous approaches
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