Numerous studies have shown the important role of both emotion regulation (ER) and emotion knowledge (EK) in child development. Despite the number of studies carried out on both variables, there is practically no research on the developmental relationship between these two constructs. We present a longitudinal study to explore the relationship between EK and ER in preschoolers in which we measured these variables over 3 academic years in a cohort of 108 preschool children using the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC). The ERC is divided into 2 subscales: Emotional Regulation (ER) and Lability/Negativity (L/N). Two cross-lagged models were constructed in order to examine the predictive power of ER and L/N on EK across the three time points. The results suggest that ER is an ability that precedes and predicts EK during preschool years. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
This study addresses the interacting effects of classroom cohesion and hierarchy on the relationships between victimization and aggression with peer acceptance and rejection. Classroom cohesion and hierarchy were constructed from friendship nominations. Multilevel analysis conducted in a sample of seventh- and eighth-grade students from the Sociescuela program in Spain ( N = 6,600) showed that in cohesive and hierarchical classrooms, a higher level of victimization was found; peer rejection was more strongly associated with victimization. In contrast to previous research, for males, aggression was more strongly associated with peer acceptance in less hierarchized classrooms.
This study explores variables related to teachers' perception of disruption at school as a function of teachers (sense of personal accomplishment, professional disengagement and depersonalization and emotional exhaustion) and school (overall school management and quality of school rules) factors. Using a questionnaire regarding school climate, data from 4,055 teachers across 187 high schools were analyzed. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied and the results indicate that, taken separately, significant individual teacher predictors (Model 1) explain 26% (95% CI [.23, .29]) of the variability of the perceived disruption, especially depersonalization and emotional exhaustion. Contextual school variables (Model 2) explained 15% (95% CI [.12, .18]) of variance in teachers' perceived disruption, with a significant negative relationship with the quality of rules. Model 3 included the above factors plus interactions between the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization variables and school indicators (30% of variance explained; 95% CI [.26, .33]). The results indicated the existence of a moderating effect for the quality of school rules, so that fair and properly-applied rules in the school context may be associated with a decrease in the relationship between depersonalization and emotional exhaustion and perceived disruption.
Spirituality had been acknowledged as a key construct to observe in the treatment and recovery from addictions. Due to the individualistic nature of the construct and overlap with religion, it is still not clear how spirituality influence treatment and recovery of individuals. Different treatments and approaches like AA philosophy or spiritual practices embrace the whole construct to obtain better outcomes in recovery for addictions. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of this construct and its relationship with recovery. A search strategy was followed to retrieve 457 scientific papers related with the matter of study. A total of 14 studies were selected and assessed for quality. Experimental and observational studies were categorised by design, and reviewed through narrative synthesis. Results showed that due to the lack of experimental research, poor quality and diverse conceptions of the construct, spiritual treatments are not more effective than other treatments whereas high levels of spirituality and spiritual practices tend to reduce the substance use outcomes and improve in other areas of recovery. From the findings reviewed which need to be considered with caution, it was concluded that implementing this construct within the therapy or approach may improve, in many cases, to achieve a successful recovery. More research is needed to determine if spiritual-related treatments have better outcomes, and some recommendations were addressed for future research, in addition to an encouragement for the inclusion of spirituality with its diversity into different domains of clinical practice.
Introduction. The present study examined the ecological-transactional model delineated by Cicchetti and Lynch (1993) and the nature of the association between adolescents' parental maltreatment and victimization and bullying at school. Method.Multivariate multilevel regression analyses were conducted on a sample of 2.852 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 from 25 secondary schools. Data was nested across 133 classrooms. Classrooms level variables and individual variables in relationship to parental maltreatment, behavioural disorders, sex, and bullying and victimization were included in the analysis.Results. Results indicated that adolescents who reported suffering violence at home, showed more vulnerability to becoming victims of bullying at school, with the relationship being moderated by the level of bullying in the classroom. It was also examined the role of behavioural disorders and a relation between these factors was found amongst the bullies but not the victims. Discussion and Conclusion. This study uses the systemic perspective of ecological-transactional model on child maltreatment to show the importance between the school and home microsystems in the perpetuation of victimization. The results imply that what children experience at home might cause emotional and behavioural differences in varying classroom climates at school. Therefore, understanding the interactions between systems' transaction of socialisation mechanisms might contribute for effective anti-bullying programs. Ecological-transaction model approach of adolescents' parental maltreatment and peer-bullying: the moderating role of bullying at the classroom Resumen Introducción. Este estudio examina el modelo ecológico-transaccional propuesto por Cicchetti and Lynch (1993) y la naturaleza de la asociación entre adolescentes expuestos a maltrato parental y la victimización y bullying en la escuela. Método. Se realizó un análisis multivariado multinivel de regresión en una muestra de 2.852 adolescentes entre 12 y 17 años pertenecientes a 25 escuelas de secundaria. Los datos fueron anidados en 133 clases. Se utilizaron en el análisis, variables grupales relacionadas con el maltrato parental, trastornos comportamentales, género, victimización y abuso. Resultados. Los resultados indicaron que las víctimas de maltrato parental mostraban más vulnerabilidad para convertirse en víctimas de bullying, siendo esta relación moderada por el nivel de bullying en el aula. Además, se examinó el papel de los trastornos comportamentales encontrándose una relación significativa entre estos factores en los agresores. Discusión y Conclusión. Este estudio examina la perspectiva sistémica del modelo ecológicotransaccional sobre el maltrato infantil para demostrar la importancia entre los microsistemas escolares y familiares en la perpetuación de la victimización. Los resultados indican que lo que los niños experimentan en el hogar puede causar diferencias emocionales y comportamentales en función del clima del aula en la escuela. Por lo tanto, la comprensión...
El presente estudio explora la relación entre la disrupción y tres conjuntos de indicadores sobre la convivencia escolar desde una perspectiva multi-informante. Los datos procedían de 4055 profesores y 16017 estudiantes de 187 centros de secundaria. Las tres variables dependientes fueron la percepción de profesores y alumnos sobre la disrupción, y el reconocimiento por los alumnos de acciones disruptivas. Los predictores elegidos comprendían aquellos relacionados con la calidad de la convivencia, otros sobre medidas organizativas del centro que mejoran dicha convivencia y un tercer grupo sobre obstáculos que la deterioran. Los resultados muestran una mayor relación de la percepción de los profesores con los tres grupos de predictores.Los indicadores de obstáculos a la convivencia mostraron una mayor varianza asociada con las tres medidas de la disrupción. La valoración y respeto de las familias también se asocia con bajos niveles de disrupción. El análisis de los obstáculos a la convivencia muestra que las conductas disruptivas y agresivas están íntimamente unidas. Las relaciones con las conductas coercitivas por parte del profesor encajan con la existencia de bucles de disrupción-coerción-disrupción crecientes.
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