The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Classifier, a naïve Bayesian classifier, can rapidly and accurately classify bacterial 16S rRNA sequences into the new higher-order taxonomy proposed in Bergey's Taxonomic Outline of the Prokaryotes (2nd ed., release 5.0, Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 2004). It provides taxonomic assignments from domain to genus, with confidence estimates for each assignment. The majority of classifications (98%) were of high estimated confidence (>95%) and high accuracy (98%). In addition to being tested with the corpus of 5,014 type strain sequences from Bergey's outline, the RDP Classifier was tested with a corpus of 23,095 rRNA sequences as assigned by the NCBI into their alternative higher-order taxonomy. The results from leave-one-out testing on both corpora show that the overall accuracies at all levels of confidence for near-full-length and 400-base segments were 89% or above down to the genus level, and the majority of the classification errors appear to be due to anomalies in the current taxonomies. For shorter rRNA segments, such as those that might be generated by pyrosequencing, the error rate varied greatly over the length of the 16S rRNA gene, with segments around the V2 and Starting in the mid-1980s, Carl Woese revolutionized the field of microbiology with his rRNA-based phylogenetic comparisons delineating the three main branches of life (28). Today, rRNA-based analysis remains a central method in microbiology, used not only to explore microbial diversity but also as a day-to-day method for bacterial identification. Identification methods are conceptually easier to interpret than molecular phylogenetic analyses and are often preferred when the groups are well understood. Most rRNA identification (classification) methods, as opposed to phylogenetic (clustering) methods, have been nearest-neighbor-based classification schemes (10, 18; however, see reference 4). In some part, this was due to the lack of a consistent, higher-level bacterial classification structure (taxonomy). Several recent events have helped change this situation. In 2002, an ad hoc committee for the reevaluation of species definition in bacteriology (24) advised that all new bacterial species descriptions include an rRNA sequence from the type strain, and in 2001, Bergey's Trust published a revised higher-order taxonomy attempting to reconcile bacterial taxonomy with rRNA-based phylogeny (12, 13).The naïve Bayesian classification method is simple yet can be extremely efficient. "Naïve" refers to the (naïve) assumption that data attributes are independent. Domingos and Pazzani (11) showed that the Bayesian method can still be optimal even when this attribute independency is violated. The method has also been reported to perform well on problems similar to the classification of sequence data, such as the classification of text documents, that have a high-dimensional feature space and sparse data (16).The Ribosomal Database Project II (RDP) provides data, tools, and services related to rRNA sequences to the rese...
The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides researchers with quality-controlled bacterial and archaeal small subunit rRNA alignments and analysis tools. An improved alignment strategy uses the Infernal secondary structure aware aligner to provide a more consistent higher quality alignment and faster processing of user sequences. Substantial new analysis features include a new Pyrosequencing Pipeline that provides tools to support analysis of ultra high-throughput rRNA sequencing data. This pipeline offers a collection of tools that automate the data processing and simplify the computationally intensive analysis of large sequencing libraries. In addition, a new Taxomatic visualization tool allows rapid visualization of taxonomic inconsistencies and suggests corrections, and a new class Assignment Generator provides instructors with a lesson plan and individualized teaching materials. Details about RDP data and analytical functions can be found at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/.
Ribosomal Database Project (RDP; http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/) provides the research community with aligned and annotated rRNA gene sequence data, along with tools to allow researchers to analyze their own rRNA gene sequences in the RDP framework. RDP data and tools are utilized in fields as diverse as human health, microbial ecology, environmental microbiology, nucleic acid chemistry, taxonomy and phylogenetics. In addition to aligned and annotated collections of bacterial and archaeal small subunit rRNA genes, RDP now includes a collection of fungal large subunit rRNA genes. RDP tools, including Classifier and Aligner, have been updated to work with this new fungal collection. The use of high-throughput sequencing to characterize environmental microbial populations has exploded in the past several years, and as sequence technologies have improved, the sizes of environmental datasets have increased. With release 11, RDP is providing an expanded set of tools to facilitate analysis of high-throughput data, including both single-stranded and paired-end reads. In addition, most tools are now available as open source packages for download and local use by researchers with high-volume needs or who would like to develop custom analysis pipelines.
The Ribosomal Database Project-II (RDP-II) pro-vides data, tools and services related to ribosomal RNA sequences to the research community. Through its website (http://rdp.cme.msu.edu), RDP-II offers aligned and annotated rRNA sequence data, analysis services, and phylogenetic inferences (trees) derived from these data. RDP-II release 8.1 contains 16 277 prokaryotic, 5201 eukaryotic, and 1503 mitochondrial small subunit rRNA sequences in aligned and annotated format. The current public beta release of 9.0 debuts a new regularly updated alignment of over 50 000 annotated (eu)bacterial sequences. New analysis services include a sequence search and selection tool (Hierarchy Browser) and a phylogenetic tree building and visualization tool (Phylip Interface). A new interactive tutorial guides users through the basics of rRNA sequence analysis. Other services include probe checking, phylogenetic placement of user sequences, screening of users' sequences for chimeric rRNA sequences, automated alignment, production of similarity matrices, and services to plan and analyze terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (T-RFLP) experiments. The RDP-II email address for questions or comments is firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II) provides the research community with aligned and annotated rRNA gene sequences, along with analysis services and a phylogenetically consistent taxonomic framework for these data. Updated monthly, these services are made available through the RDP-II website (http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/). RDP-II release 9.21 (August 2004) contains 101 632 bacterial small subunit rRNA gene sequences in aligned and annotated format. High-throughput tools for initial taxonomic placement, identification of related sequences, probe and primer testing, data navigation and subalignment download are provided. The RDP-II email address for questions or comments is email@example.com.
Substantial new features have been implemented at the Ribosomal Database Project in response to the increased importance of high-throughput rRNA sequence analysis in microbial ecology and related disciplines. The most important changes include quality analysis, including chimera detection, for all available rRNA sequences and the introduction of myRDP Space, a new web component designed to help researchers place their own data in context with the RDP's data. In addition, new video tutorials describe how to use RDP features. Details about RDP data and analytical functions can be found at the RDP-II website ().
Antibiotics have been administered to agricultural animals for disease treatment, disease prevention, and growth promotion for over 50 y. The impact of such antibiotic use on the treatment of human diseases is hotly debated. We raised pigs in a highly controlled environment, with one portion of the littermates receiving a diet containing performance-enhancing antibiotics [chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and penicillin (known as ASP250)] and the other portion receiving the same diet but without the antibiotics. We used phylogenetic, metagenomic, and quantitative PCR-based approaches to address the impact of antibiotics on the swine gut microbiota. Bacterial phylotypes shifted after 14 d of antibiotic treatment, with the medicated pigs showing an increase in Proteobacteria (1-11%) compared with nonmedicated pigs at the same time point. This shift was driven by an increase in Escherichia coli populations. Analysis of the metagenomes showed that microbial functional genes relating to energy production and conversion were increased in the antibiotic-fed pigs. The results also indicate that antibiotic resistance genes increased in abundance and diversity in the medicated swine microbiome despite a high background of resistance genes in nonmedicated swine. Some enriched genes, such as aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases, confer resistance to antibiotics that were not administered in this study, demonstrating the potential for indirect selection of resistance to classes of antibiotics not fed. The collateral effects of feeding subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics to agricultural animals are apparent and must be considered in cost-benefit analyses.intestinal microbiota | microbiome shifts | swine bacteria | BioTrove microarray | metagenomics
The Ribosomal RNA Operon Copy Number Database (rrndb) is an Internet-accessible database containing annotated information on rRNA operon copy number among prokaryotes. Gene redundancy is uncommon in prokaryotic genomes, yet the rRNA genes can vary from one to as many as 15 copies. Despite the widespread use of 16S rRNA gene sequences for identification of prokaryotes, information on the number and sequence of individual rRNA genes in a genome is not readily accessible. In an attempt to understand the evolutionary implications of rRNA operon redundancy, we have created a phylogenetically arranged report on rRNA gene copy number for a diverse collection of prokaryotic microorganisms. Each entry (organism) in the rrndb contains detailed information linked directly to external websites including the Ribosomal Database Project, GenBank, PubMed and several culture collections. Data contained in the rrndb will be valuable to researchers investigating microbial ecology and evolution using 16S rRNA gene sequences. The rrndb web site is directly accessible on the WWW at http://rrndb.cme. msu.edu.
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