CASK acts as a coactivator for Tbr-1, an essential transcription factor in cerebral cortex development. Presently, the molecular mechanism of the CASK coactivation effect is unclear. Here, we report that CASK binds to another nuclear protein, CINAP, which binds histones and facilitates nucleosome assembly. CINAP, via its interaction with CASK, forms a complex with Tbr-1, regulating expression of the genes controlled by Tbr-1 and CASK, such as NR2b and reelin. A knockdown of endogenous CINAP in hippocampal neurons reduces the promoter activity of NR2b. Moreover, NMDA stimulation results in a reduction in the level of CINAP protein, via a proteasomal degradation pathway, correlating with a decrease in NR2b expression in neurons. This study suggests that reduction of the CINAP protein level by synaptic stimulation contributes to regulation of the transcriptional activity of the Tbr-1/CASK/CINAP protein complex and thus modifies expression of the NR2b gene.
Alterations of gut microbiota have been implicated in multiple diseases including cancer. However, the gut microbiota spectrum in lung cancer remains largely unknown. Here we profiled the gut microbiota composition in a discovery cohort containing 42 early-stage lung cancer patients and 65 healthy individuals through the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing analysis. We found that lung cancer patients displayed a significant shift of microbiota composition in contrast to the healthy populations. To identify the optimal microbiota signature for noninvasive diagnosis purpose, we took advantage of Support-Vector Machine (SVM) and found that the predictive model with 13 operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based biomarkers achieved a high accuracy in lung cancer prediction (area under curve, AUC = 97.6%). This signature performed reasonably well in the validation cohort (AUC = 76.4%), which contained 34 lung cancer patients and 40 healthy individuals. To facilitate potential clinical practice, we further constructed a 'patient discrimination index' (PDI), which largely retained the prediction efficiency in both the discovery cohort (AUC = 92.4%) and the validation cohort (AUC = 67.7%). Together, our study uncovered the microbiota spectrum of lung cancer patients and established the specific gut microbial signature for the potential prediction of the early-stage lung cancer.
In our recent paper, we cloned a gene that we called CASK-interacting protein (CINAP). It has come to our attention that the CINAP cDNA sequence is identical to the mouse homolog of sequences previously ascribed to the human Cell Division Autoantigen 1 (CDA1) (Chai et al., 2001), Cutaneous T cell Lymphoma (CTCL) SE20-4 (Eichmuller et al., 2001), and Differentially Expressed Nucleolar TGF-␤1 Target (DENTT) (Ozbun et al., 2001, 2003).
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) promotes lung cancer malignant progression. Here, we take advantage of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated somatic gene knockout in a mouse model to identify bona fide TSGs. From individual knockout of 55 potential TSGs, we identify five genes, including, ,, , and, whose knockout significantly promotes lung tumorigenesis. These candidate genes are frequently down-regulated in human lung cancer specimens and significantly associated with survival in patients with lung cancer. Through crossing the conditional knockout allele to the mouse model, we further find that deletion dramatically promotes lung cancer progression. The tumor-promotive effect of knockout in vivo is mainly mediated through an increase of the EZH2 level, which up-regulates the H3K27me3 level. Moreover, the -knockout lung tumors are preferentially sensitive to EZH2 inhibitor treatment. Collectively, our study provides a systematic screening of TSGs in vivo and identifies UTX as an important epigenetic regulator in lung tumorigenesis.
Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), accounting for approximately 30% of non-small cell lung cancer, is often refractory to therapy. Screening a small-molecule library, we identified digitoxin as a high potency compound for suppressing human lung SCC growth and Mechanistic investigations revealed that digitoxin attenuated YAP phosphorylation and promoted YAP nuclear sequestration. YAP activation led to excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by downregulating the antioxidant enzyme GPX2 in a manner related to p63 blockade. In patient-derived xenograft models, digitoxin treatment efficiently inhibited lung SCC progression in correlation with reduced expression of YAP. Collectively, our results highlight a novel tumor-suppressor function of YAP via downregulation of GPX2 and ROS accumulation, with potential implications to improve precision medicine of human lung SCC. .
Cytokine signaling is responsible for coordinating conserved epithelial regeneration and immune responses in the digestive tract. In the Drosophila midgut, Upd3 is a major cytokine, which is induced in enterocytes (EC) and enteroblasts (EB) upon oral infection, and initiates intestinal stem cell (ISC) dependent tissue repair. To date, the genetic network directing upd3 transcription remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we have identified the key infection-responsive enhancers of the upd3 gene and show that distinct enhancers respond to various stresses. Furthermore, through functional genetic screening, bioinformatic analyses and yeast one-hybrid screening, we determined that the transcription factors Scalloped (Sd), Mothers against dpp (Mad), and D-Fos are principal regulators of upd3 expression. Our study demonstrates that upd3 transcription in the gut is regulated by the activation of multiple pathways, including the Hippo, TGF-β/Dpp, and Src, as well as p38-dependent MAPK pathways. Thus, these essential pathways, which are known to control ISC proliferation cell-autonomously, are also activated in ECs to promote tissue turnover the regulation of upd3 transcription.
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