We developed a tandem electrocatalyst for CO 2 -to-CO conversion comprising the single Cu site co-coordinated with N and S anchored carbon matrix (Cu-S 1 N 3 ) and atomically dispersed Cu clusters (Cu x ), denoted as Cu-S 1 N 3 /Cu x . The as-prepared Cu-S 1 N 3 /Cu x composite presents a 100 % Faradaic efficiency towards CO generation (FE CO ) at À0.65 V vs. RHE and high FE CO over 90 % from À0.55 to À0.75 V, outperforming the analogues with Cu-N 4 (FE CO only 54 % at À0.7 V) and Cu-S 1 N 3 (FE CO 70 % at À0.7 V) configurations. The unsymmetrical Cu-S 1 N 3 atomic interface in the carbon basal plane possesses an optimized binding energy for the key intermediate *COOH compared with Cu-N 4 site. At the same time, the adjacent Cu x effectively promotes the protonation of *CO 2 À by accelerating water dissociation and offering *H to the Cu-S 1 N 3 active sites. This work provides a tandem strategy for facilitating proton-coupled electron transfer over the atomic-level catalytic sites.Electrochemical reduction CO 2 to value-added fuels using renewable electricity is one of appealing CO 2 utilization strategies for management of the global carbon balance.  Recent technoeconomic analysis shows that the reduction of CO 2 to CO or formic acid through two-electron transfer processes is the most economical approach for CO 2 conversion, owing to their high added value per KJ of electrical energy input.  As a typical product, CO, especially with high purity, is very attractive, because it can be readily used as an important feed-stock for a couple of chemical engineering processes such as Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.  Thus, efficient CO 2 -to-CO conversion catalysts with adequate activity and selectivity are highly desired.
Antigen 85B (Ag85B) is an important immunodominant antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and is a very promising vaccine candidate molecule. Rv3425 is a member of the subgroup 3 of the PPE family, which does not exist in all BCG strains. In this study we constructed a new rBCG which included this united gene (Ag85B-Rv3425). The level of antigen-stimulated T cells expressing IFN-gamma was significantly higher in the C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with rBCG::Ag85B-Rv3425 than with BCG. In addition, the sera from mice immunized with rBCG::Ag85B-Rv3425 revealed an increase in the specific immunoglobulin G titers than that from mice immunized with BCG. Antigen specific IgG subclass analysis showed that rBCG::Ag85B-Rv3425 tended to facilitate IgG2a production, suggesting enhancement of predominant Th1 response which in turn may facilitate increased production of protective IFN-gamma. These results suggested that this rBCG::Ag85B-Rv3425 could be a strong vaccine candidate for further study.
Zfp462 is a newly identified vertebrate-specific zinc finger protein that contains nearly 2500 amino acids and 23 putative C2H2-type zinc finger domains. So far, the functions of Zfp462 remain unclear. In our study, we showed that Zfp462 is expressed predominantly in the developing brain, especially in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus regions from embryonic day 7.5 to early postnatal stage. By using a piggyBac transposon-generated Zfp462 knockout (KO) mouse model, we found that Zfp462 KO mice exhibited prenatal lethality with normal neural tube patterning, whereas heterozygous (Het) Zfp462 KO (Zfp462 ) mice showed developmental delay with low body weight and brain weight. Behavioral studies showed that Zfp462 mice presented anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming and hair loss, which were similar to the pathological grooming behaviors in Hoxb8 KO mice. Further analysis of grooming microstructure showed the impairment of grooming patterning in Zfp462 mice. In addition, the mRNA levels of Pbx1 (pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1, an interacting protein of Zfp462) and Hoxb8 decreased in the brains of Zfp462 mice, which may be the cause of anxiety-like behaviors. Finally, imipramine, a widely used and effective anti-anxiety medicine, rescued anxiety-like behaviors and excessive self-grooming in Zfp462 mice. In conclusion, Zfp462 deficiency causes anxiety-like behaviors with excessive self-grooming in mice. This provides a novel genetic mouse model for anxiety disorders and a useful tool to determine potential therapeutic targets for anxiety disorders and screen anti-anxiety drugs.
Gastrodin, a main constituent of a Chinese herbal medicine, has been shown to be effective in treating various mood disorders. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether gastrodin could ameliorate stress-associated behavior in a rat model of enhanced single prolonged stress (ESPS)-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Following ESPS, rats were administered orally with gastrodin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg daily) or vehicle for 2 weeks. Animals were then tested in the open field and elevated plus-maze, and the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β, the expression of iNOS, p38 and phospho-p38 (p-p38) in hippocampus were also tested. ESPS exposure resulted in pronounced anxiety-like behavior, elevated IL-6 and IL-1β levels, and the higher expression of iNOS and p-p38 in hippocampus. However, repeated treatment with gastrodin, particularly at higher doses, reversed the aforementioned changes, including anxiety-like behavior, levels of IL-6 and IL-1β, and the expression of iNOS and the p38 MAPK phosphorylation. These results indicate that gastrodin possesses anxiolytic effect and may be an effective herbal preparation for the treatment of PTSD.
The extractive distillation process for the separation of an ethyl formate-ethanolwater mixture with ethylene glycol as the extractive solvent was investigated. High-purity products could be gathered in the top of the column, and ethylene glycol could be completely recycled in the bottom of the recovery column. Two kinds of control strategy were designed and tested in the extractive distillation system to handle strong disturbances in feed flow rate and feed composition. A comparison of the results indicated that the control strategy based on a proper variable pairing defined according to the effective relative gain array could more efficiently minimize the dynamic disturbances.
Communication is vital for nearly all organisms to survive and thrive. For some particularly successful intracellular pathogens, a robust and precise signal transduction system is imperative for handling the complex, volatile, and harsh niche. The communication network of the etiology of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), namely two-component system (TCS), the eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinases(STPKs) system, the protein tyrosine kinase(PTK) system and the extracytoplasmic function σ(ECF-σ) system, determine how the pathogen responds to environmental fluctuations. At least 12 pair TCSs and four orphan proteins (three response regulators, Rv2884, Rv0260c, Rv0818, and one putative sensory transduction protein, Rv3143) can be found in the M.tb H37Rv genome. They regulate various aspects of M.tb, including virulence, dormancy, persistence, and drug resistance. This review focuses on the physiological roles of TCSs and the network of M.tb TCSs from a systems biology perspective. The implications of TCSs for better vaccine and new drug targets against tuberculosis are also examined.
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