BackgroundAtherosclerosis is now recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a critical factor in inflammatory responses, which promotes the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family cytokines and is associated with inflammatory progress of atherosclerosis. However, the potential link between PlGF and Ang II has not been investigated. In the current study, whether Ang II could regulate PlGF expression, and the effect of PlGF on cell proliferation, was investigated in human vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).ResultsIn growth-arrested human VECs and VSMCs, Ang II induced PlGF mRNA expression after 4 hour treatment, and peaked at 24 hours. 10-6 mol/L Ang II increased PlGF protein production after 8 hour treatment, and peaked at 24 hours. Stimulation with Ang II also induced mRNA expression of VEGF receptor-1 and -2(VEGFR-1 and -2) in these cells. The Ang II type I receptor (AT1R) antagonist blocked Ang II-induced PlGF gene expression and protein production. Several intracellular signals elicited by Ang II were involved in PlGF synthesis, including activation of protein kinase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and PI3-kinase. A neutralizing antibody against PlGF partially inhibited the Ang II-induced proliferation of VECs and VSMCs. However, this antibody showed little effect on the basal proliferation in these cells, whereas blocking antibody of VEGF could suppress both basal and Ang II-induced proliferation in VECs and VSMCs.ConclusionOur results showed for the first time that Ang II could induce the gene expression and protein production of PlGF in VECs and VSMCs, which might play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.
Growing evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in the occurrence and development of tumors and fibrotic diseases. However, the integrated analysis of lncRNA and circRNA expression, alongside associated co-expression and competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks, has not yet been performed in human hypertrophic scars (HS). The present study compared the expression levels of lncRNAs, circRNAs and mRNAs in human HS and normal skin tissues by high-throughput RNA sequencing. Numerous differentially expressed lncRNAs, circRNAs and mRNAs were detected. Subsequently, five aberrantly expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs, and six circRNAs were measured to verify the RNA sequencing results by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were performed for the dysregulated genes, in order to elucidate their principal functions. In addition, a coding-noncoding gene co-expression (CNC) network and ceRNA network were constructed for specific significantly altered genes. The CNC network analysis suggested that AC048380.1 and LINC00299 were associated with metastasis-related genes, including inhibin subunit βA (INHBA), SMAD family member 7 (SMAD7), collagen type I α1 chain (COL1A1), transforming growth factor β3 (TGFβ3) and MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor (MYC). Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 was associated with the lncRNAs cancer susceptibility 11, TGFβ3-antisense RNA 1 (AS1), INHBA-AS1, AC048380.1, LINC00299 and LINC01969. Circ-Chr17:50187014_50195976_-, circ-Chr17:50189167_50194626_-, circ-Chr17:50189167_ 50198002_- and circ-Chr17:50189858_50195330_- were also associated with INHBA, SMAD7, COL1A1, TGFβ3 and MYC. COL1A1 and TGFβ3 were associated with circ-Chr9:125337017_125337591_+ and circ-Chr12:120782654_120784593_-. The ceRNA network indicated that INHBA-AS1 and circ-Chr9:125337017_125337591_+ were ceRNAs of microRNA-182-5p targeting potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J member 6, ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 18, SRY-box 11, MAGE family member L2, matrix metallopeptidase 16, thrombospondin 2, phosphodiesterase 11A and collagen type V a1 chain. These findings suggested that lncRNAs and circRNAs may act as ceRNAs, which are implicated in the pathophysiology and development of human HS, and lay a foundation for further insight into the novel regulatory mechanism of lncRNAs and circRNAs in hypertrophic scarring.
Endometrial cancer is one of the most prevalent tumors of the female reproductive system causing serious health effects to women worldwide. Although numerous studies, including analysis of gene expression profile and cellular microenvironment have been reported in this field, pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. In this study, we performed a system bioinformatics analysis of endometrial cancer using the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets (GSE17025, GSE63678, and GSE115810) to identify the core genes. In addition, exosomes derived from endometrial cancer cells were also isolated and identified. First, we analyzed the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between endometrial cancer tissues and normal tissues in clinic samples. We found that HAND2-AS1, PEG3, OGN, SFRP4, and OSR2 were co-expressed across all 3 datasets. Pathways analysis showed that several pathways associated with endometrial cancer, including "p53 signaling pathway", "Glutathione metabolism", "Cell cycle", and etc. Next, we selected DEGs with highly significant fold change and co-expressed across the 3 datasets and validated them in the TCGA database using Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). Finally, we performed a survival analysis and identified four genes (TOP2A, ASPM, EFEMP1, and FOXL2) that play key roles in endometrial cancer. We found up-regulation of TOP2A and ASPM in endometrial cancer tissues or cells, while EFEMP1 and FOXL2 were downregulated. Furthermore, we isolated exosomes from the culturing supernatants of endometrial cancer cells (Ishikawa and HEC-1-A) and found that miR-133a, which regulates expression of FOXL2, were present in exosomes and that they could be delivered to normal endometrial cells. The common DEGs, pathways, and exosomal miRNAs identified in this study might play an important role in progression as well as diagnosis of endometrial cancer. In conclusion, our results provide insights into the pathogenesis and risk assessment of endometrial cancer. Even so, further studies are required to elucidate on the precise mechanism of action of these genes in endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer, a gynecologic malignancy tumor ranked behind breast, lung, and colorectal cancers 1 , greatly affects women's health around the world. In the recent past, incidence and the rate of this disease has increased due to lack of effective diagnosis before menopause 2. Meanwhile, patient age at disease onset has also decreased due to changes in lifestyles 3. In general, endometrial cancer is classified into two types based on pathological and histological characteristics 2. Type I commonly known as endometrioid adenocarcinoma is the major type of endometrial cancer 4. Type II is the second category of endometrial cancer, and have a higher prevalence and poor prognosis 5. Early diagnosis is required for effective disease assessment and treatment, but numerous studies are now focusing on specific molecular alterations that aid in the development of endometrial cancers 6,7. Initiation and progression of tumors...
BackgroundHedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway-related genes have important roles in several physiological and disease processes that involve cell proliferation. Long non-coding region RNAs (lncRNAs) have a regulatory role on gene expression. Keloid is characterized by excessive proliferation of scar tissue following trauma. The aims of this study were to evaluate the Hh signaling pathway in keloid skin tissues and its downstream gene expression and lncRNAs, compared with normal skin.Material/MethodsFour pairs of keloids and adjacent normal skin epidermis underwent total RNA extraction. Gene chip high-throughput real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to examine the differential expression profiles of the Hh signaling pathway-related lncRNAs and mRNAs in the human keloid and normal skin. The differentially expressed mRNAs were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) to identify their biological roles.ResultsIn keloid tissue, differential expression of 33 mRNAs and 30 lncRNAs relating to the Hh pathway, were verified by gene chip qPCR. The results of GO and KEGG analysis showed that the upregulated mRNAs were involved in cell proliferation, cell growth, and tissue repair, and down-regulated mRNAs were involved in apoptosis. The lncRNA, AC073257.2, affected cell keloid growth and proliferation by its upstream target the GLI2 gene at the transcriptional level. The lncRNA, HNF1A-AS1, affected cell keloid growth and proliferation by its neighboring target gene, HNF1A.ConclusionsDifferential expression occurred in Hh signaling pathway-related lncRNAs and mRNAs, which may provide further insight into the development of keloid.
The exotic species Spartina anglica, introduced from Europe in 1963, has been experiencing a decline in the past decade in coastal China, but the reasons for the decline are still not clear. It is hypothesized that competition with the native species Scirpus triqueter may have played an important role in the decline due to niche overlap in the field. We measured biomass, leaf number and area, asexual reproduction and relative neighborhood effect (RNE) of the two species in both monoculture and mixture under three nitrogen levels (control, low and high). S. anglica showed significantly lower biomass accumulation, leaf number and asexual reproduction in mixture than in monoculture. The inter- and intra-specific RNE of S. anglica were all positive, and the inter-specific RNE was significantly higher than the intra-specific RNE in the control. For S. triqueter, inter- and intra-specific RNE were negative at the high nitrogen level but positive in the control and at the low nitrogen level. This indicates that S. triqueter exerted an asymmetric competitive advantage over S. anglica in the control and low nitrogen conditions; however, S. anglica facilitated growth of S. triqueter in high nitrogen conditions. Nitrogen level changed the interactions between the two species because S. triqueter better tolerated low nitrogen. Since S. anglica is increasingly confined to upper, more nitrogen-limited marsh areas in coastal China, increased competition from S. triqueter may help explain its decline.
a b s t r a c tMunicipal solid waste management is one of the key subsystems of urban metabolism, which significantly impacts urban carbon cycles. A conceptual model for analyzing the carbon cycle of the municipal solid waste management system was established based on the theory of urban metabolism with regard to urban carbon cycling. The model includes horizontal fluxes, vertical fluxes and carbon stocks of the waste managing processes such as waste collection, transportation, treatment and disposal. The current carbon cycling of the municipal solid waste management system and two other scenarios were analyzed using a Jingmen City case study. The results indicate that the input horizontal flux in municipal solid waste between 1989 and 2004 was 293.47 Gg. Among all of the considered scenarios, the landfill formed the largest carbon stocks; incineration showed the largest vertical fluxes of carbon dioxide, and source separation and integrated technologies decreased carbon emissions by adding new carbon sources to the urban system. Improving municipal solid waste management using techniques, such as waste minimization, source separation, recycling, technical innovations of incineration, compost and digestion of organic waste, landfill mining, etc., could impact the urban carbon cycle by reducing carbon emissions.
GC-MS method combined with FTIR techniques by the analysis of polysaccharide was applied to evaluate the similarity between wild (W) and tissue-cultured (TC) Dendrobium huoshanense (DHS), Dendrobium officinale (DO), and Dendrobium moniliforme (DM) as well as 3 wild Dendrobium spp.: Dendrobium henanense (DHN), Dendrobium loddigesii (DL), and Dendrobium crepidatum (DC). Eight monosaccharides involving xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, glucose, mannose, fructose, galactose, and galacturonic acid were identified in the polysaccharide from each Dendrobium sample while the contents of the monosugars varied remarkably across origins and species. Further similarity evaluation based on GC-MS data showed that the r cor values of different origins of DHS, DO, and DM were 0.831, 0.865, and 0.884, respectively, while the r cor values ranged from 0.475 to 0.837 across species. FTIR files of the polysaccharides revealed that the similarity coefficients between W and TC-DHS, DO, and DM were 88.7%, 86.8%, and 88.5%, respectively, in contrast to the similarity coefficients varying from 57.4% to 82.6% across species. These results suggested that the structures of polysaccharides between different origins of the investigated Dendrobiums might be higher than what we had supposed.
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