Outcomes for patients with hematologic malignancy infected with COVID-19 have not been aggregated. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the risk of death and other important outcomes for these patients. We searched Pubmed and EMBASE up to August 20, 2020, to identify reports of patients with hematologic malignancy and COVID-19. The primary outcome was a pooled mortality estimate, considering all patients and only hospitalized patients. Secondary outcomes included risk of ICU admission and ventilation in hospitalized patients. Subgroup analyses included mortality stratified by age, treatment status, and malignancy subtype. Pooled prevalence, risk ratios (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. 34 adult and 5 pediatric studies (3377 patients) from Asia, Europe, and North America were included (14/34 adult studies included only hospitalized patients). The risk of death amongst adult patients was 34% (95% CI 28-39, N=3240) in this sample of predominantly hospitalized patients. Patients aged >60 years had a significantly higher risk of death than patients <60 years (RR 1.82, 95% CI 1.45-2.27, N=1169). The risk of death in pediatric patients was 4% (95% CI 1-9, N=102). The RR of death comparing patients with recent systemic anti-cancer therapy to no treatment was 1.17 (95% CI 0.83-1.64; N=736). Adult patients with hematologic malignancy and COVID-19, especially hospitalized patients, have a high risk of dying. Patients >60 years have significantly higher mortality, and pediatric patients appear to be relatively spared. Recent cancer treatment does not appear to significantly increase the risk of death.
Background Evidence of immune-mediated neurological syndromes associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is limited. We therefore investigated clinical, serological and CSF features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with neurological manifestations. Methods Consecutive COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations other than isolated anosmia and/or non-severe headache, and with no previous neurological or psychiatric disorders were prospectively included. Neurological examination was performed in all patients and lumbar puncture with CSF examination was performed when not contraindicated. Serum anti-gangliosides antibodies were tested when clinically indicated. Results Of the 349 COVID-19 admitted to our center between March 23rd and April 24th 2020, 15 patients (4.3%) had neurological manifestations and fulfilled the study inclusion/exclusion criteria. CSF examination was available in 13 patients and showed lymphocytic pleocytosis in 2 patients: 1 with anti-contactin-associated protein 2 (anti-Caspr2) antibody encephalitis and 1 with meningo-polyradiculitis. Increased serum titer of anti-GD1b antibodies was found in three patients and was associated with variable clinical presentations, including cranial neuropathy with meningo-polyradiculitis, brainstem encephalitis and delirium. CSF PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was negative in all patients. Conclusions In SARS-Cov-2 infected patients with neurological manifestations, CSF pleocytosis is associated with para- or post-infectious encephalitis and polyradiculitis. Anti-GD1b and anti-Caspr2 autoantibodies can be identified in certain cases, raising the question of SARS-CoV-2-induced secondary autoimmunity.
Immunomodulatory drugs for COVID-19 (one or more per patient) included corticosteroids (7), interleukin-7 (8), and tocilizumab (1). Continuous variables are expressed as median (interquartile range), and categorical variables as n and (%).
Background COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an unprecedented number of hospitalizations in general wards and intensive care units (ICU). Severe and critical COVID-19 patients suffer from extensive pneumonia; therefore, long-term respiratory sequelae may be expected. Research question We conducted a cohort study to determine respiratory sequelae in patients with severe and critical COVID-19. We aimed at evaluating the proportion of patients with persisting respiratory symptoms and/or abnormalities in pulmonary function tests (PFT) or in lung imaging. Study design and methods: This is a single center cohort study including COVID-19 survivors who underwent a three-month follow-up with clinical evaluation, PFT and lung high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). All clinical, functional, and radiological data were centrally reviewed. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with residual lesions on HRCT. Results Full clinical evaluation, PFT and lung HRCT were available for central review in 126, 122 and 107 patients, respectively. At follow-up, 25% of patients complained from dyspnea and 35% from fatigue, lung diffusion capacity (DLCO) was decreased in 45%, 17% had HRCT abnormalities affecting more than 5% of their lung parenchyma while signs of fibrosis were found in 21%. In multiple linear regression model, number of days in ICU were related to the extent of persisting lesions on HRCT, while intubation was associated with signs of fibrosis at follow-up (P = 0.0005, Fisher's exact test). In contrast, the severity of lung imaging or PFT changes were not predictive of fatigue and dyspnea. Interpretation Although most hospitalized COVID-19 patients recover, a substantial proportion complains from persisting dyspnea and fatigue. Impairment of DLCO and signs suggestive of fibrosis are common but are not strictly related to long-lasting symptoms.
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disorder characterized by hyperimmune response. The mortality is high despite progress being made in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This review aimed to update knowledge on adult HLH pathophysiology, identify the numerous causes and help clinicians make early diagnosis and initiate treatment. Using Embase, we searched relevant articles published from 1 January 2010 to 31 October 2019, with the MESH term ‘haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; macrophagic activation syndrome, adult’. The mean age at presentation is about 50 years, with a male predominance. The most frequent disease associations are haematological diseases, viral or bacterial infections and autoimmune diseases. The pathophysiologic mechanism is probably the combination of inherited genetic mutations and extrinsic triggers. The mortality rate is 26.5–74.8%. HScore is more efficient than HLH-2004 criteria to identify HLH, with diagnostic sensitivity and specificity 90% and 79%, respectively. 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography is potentially useful for detecting underlying disease and the extent of secondary HLH. Disease-specific treatment should be given as soon as possible. Treatment with corticosteroids combined or not with etoposide is the mainstay of treatment. Monoclonal antibodies and JAK pathway inhibitors show promise of being effective. In adult HLH, infectious diseases, autoimmune disease and malignancy should be suspected so that disease-specific treatment can be given promptly. Treatment with corticosteroids combined or not with etoposide is the mainstay of treatment, but new therapies show promise of being effective.
Background The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on functional exercise capacity seemed quickly clinically evident. The objective of this study was to assess the functional exercise capacity of patients with severe COVID-19 and to evaluate the effect of a telerehabilitation program in the specific context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method Patients hospitalized for severe or critical COVID-19 were recruited. The functional exercise capacity (one-minute sit-to-stand test (STST)) was prospectively quantified at discharge. A telerehabilitation program was then proposed. A control group was composed with the patients refusing the program. Results At discharge, none of the 48 recruited patients had a STST higher than the 50th percentile and 77% of them were below the 2.5th percentile. SpO2 was 92.6 ± 3.0% after STST and 15 patients had oxygen desaturation. After 3-months of follow-up, the number of repetitions during STST significantly increased either in telerehabilitation (n=14)(p<0.001) or in control groups (n=13)(p=0.002) but only one patient had a result higher than the 50th percentile (in Telerehabilitation group) and 37% of them were still under the 2.5th percentile for this result. The improvement was significantly and clinically greater after the telerehabilitation program (p=0.005). No adverse events were reported by the patients during the program. Conclusions Patients hospitalized for COVID-19 have a low functional exercise capacity at discharge and the recovery after three months is poor. The feasibility and the effect of a simple telerehabilitation program were verified, this program being able to substantially improve the functional recovery after three months.
Introduction Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a severe disorder with high mortality. The aim of this review is to update clinical management of relapsed/refractory HLH in adults, with a focus on current and new therapies. Methods We searched relevant articles in Embase and PUBMED with the MESH term “hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; refractory; relapsing; adult.” Results One hundred eight papers were found; of these, 22 were retained for this review. The treatment of HLH in adult is based on the HLH-94 regimen. The response rate is lower than in pediatric patients, and 20–30% are refractory to this therapy. DEP regimen and allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are associated with complete response and partial response in 27% and 49.2%, respectively. However, many patients fail to achieve a stable condition before HSCT, and mortality is higher in them. New drugs have been developed, such as emapalumab, ruxolitinib, and alemtuzumab, and they may be used as bridges to the curative HSCT. They are relatively well tolerated and have few or mild side effects. With these agents, the rate of partial response ranges from 14.2% to 100%, while the rate of complete response is highly variable according to study and medication used. The number of patients who achieved HSCT ranged from 44.8% to 77%, with a survival rate of 55.9% to 100%. However, the populations in these studies are mainly composed of mixed-age patients (pediatric and adult patients), and studies including only adult patients are scarce. Conclusion Relapsed or refractory HLH in adult patients is associated with poor outcome, and consolidation with HSCT may be required in some cases. Mortality related to HSCT is mainly due to active HLH disease before HSCT and post HSCT complications. New drugs, such as empalumab, ruxolitinib, and alemtuzumab are interesting since these agents may be used as bridges to HSCT with increases in the numbers of patients proceeding to HSCT and survival rate.
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