Microalgae, due to their complex metabolic capacity, are being continuously explored for nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and other industrially important bioactives. However, suboptimal yield and productivity of the bioactive of interest in local and robust wild-type strains are of perennial concerns for their industrial applications. To overcome such limitations, strain improvement through genetic engineering could play a decisive role. Though the advanced tools for genetic engineering have emerged at a greater pace, they still remain underused for microalgae as compared to other microorganisms. Pertaining to this, we reviewed the progress made so far in the development of molecular tools and techniques, and their deployment for microalgae strain improvement through genetic engineering. The recent availability of genome sequences and other omics datasets form diverse microalgae species have remarkable potential to guide strategic momentum in microalgae strain improvement program. This review focuses on the recent and significant improvements in the omics resources, mutant libraries, and high throughput screening methodologies helpful to augment research in the model and non-model microalgae. Authors have also summarized the case studies on genetically engineered microalgae and highlight the opportunities and challenges that are emerging from the current progress in the application of genome-editing to facilitate microalgal strain improvement. Toward the end, the regulatory and biosafety issues in the use of genetically engineered microalgae in commercial applications are described.
The MADS-box transcription factors play essential roles in various processes of plant growth and development. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis of 142 apple MADS-box proteins with that of other dicotyledonous species identified six putative Dormancy-Associated MADS-box (DAM) and four putative Flowering Locus C-like (FLC-like) proteins. In order to study the expression of apple MADS-box genes, RNA-seq analysis of 3 apical and 5 spur bud stages during dormancy, 6 flower stages and 7 fruit development stages was performed. The dramatic reduction in expression of two MdDAMs, MdMADS063 and MdMADS125 and two MdFLC-like genes, MdMADS135 and MdMADS136 during dormancy release suggests their role as flowering-repressors in apple. Apple orthologs of Arabidopsis genes, FLOWERING LOCUS T, FRIGIDA, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 and LEAFY exhibit similar expression patterns as reported in Arabidopsis, suggesting functional conservation in floral signal integration and meristem determination pathways. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of predicted targets of DAM revealed their involvement in regulation of reproductive processes and meristematic activities, indicating functional conservation of SVP orthologs (DAM) in apple. This study provides valuable insights into the functions of MADS-box proteins during apple phenology, which may help in devising strategies to improve important traits in apple.
Winter dormancy is a well known mechanism adopted by temperate plants, to mitigate the chilling temperature of winters. However, acquisition of sufficient chilling during winter dormancy ensures the normal phenological traits in subsequent growing period. Thus, low temperature appears to play crucial roles in growth and development of temperate plants. Apple, being an important temperate fruit crop, also requires sufficient chilling to release winter dormancy and normal phenological traits, which are often associated with yield and quality of fruits. DNA cytosine methylation is one of the important epigenetic modifications which remarkably affect the gene expression during various developmental and adaptive processes. In present study, methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism was employed to assess the changes in cytosine methylation during dormancy, active growth and fruit set in apple, under differential chilling conditions. Under high chill conditions, total methylation was decreased from 27.2% in dormant bud to 21.0% in fruit set stage, while no significant reduction was found under low chill conditions. Moreover, the demethylation was found to be decreased, while methylation increased from dormant bud to fruit set stage under low chill as compared to high chill conditions. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis showed high expression of DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases during dormancy and fruit set, and low expression of DNA glcosylases during active growth under low chill conditions, which was in accordance with changes in methylation patterns. The RNA-Seq data of 47 genes associated with MSAP fragments involved in cellular metabolism, stress response, antioxidant system and transcriptional regulation showed correlation between methylation and their expression. Similarly, bisulfite sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis of selected genes also showed correlation between gene body methylation and gene expression. Moreover, significant association between chilling and methylation changes was observed, which suggested that chilling acquisition during dormancy in apple is likely to affect the epigenetic regulation through DNA methylation.
Nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR) disease resistance proteins play an important role in plant defense against pathogen attack. A number of recent studies have been carried out to identify and characterize NBS-LRR gene families in many important plant species. In this study, we identified NBS-LRR gene family comprising of 1015 NBS-LRRs using highly stringent computational methods. These NBS-LRRs were characterized on the basis of conserved protein motifs, gene duplication events, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships and digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, equal distribution of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) and coiled coil (CC) (1∶1) was detected in apple while the unequal distribution was reported in majority of all other known plant genome studies. Prediction of gene duplication events intriguingly revealed that not only tandem duplication but also segmental duplication may equally be responsible for the expansion of the apple NBS-LRR gene family. Gene expression profiling using expressed sequence tags database of apple and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed the expression of these genes in wide range of tissues and disease conditions, respectively. Taken together, this study will provide a blueprint for future efforts towards improvement of disease resistance in apple.
At the ICRISAT soil chemistry laboratory, a sulfuric acidselenium (Se) digestion method has been used for several years for determination of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in a single plant digest. The method is simple and was evaluated for determining N, P, potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) in plant samples using a single digest. Finely ground plant materials of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) plant samples were digested at 3708C. Digestion completed in about 2.5 h when the digests were clear and colorless. Results with plant samples having a wide range in elemental concentrations, showed that there was an excellent agreement in the values of various elements determined by the proposed digestion procedure and the routinely used Kjeldahl and triacid acid
Dry ashing and wet ashing techniques are routinely used for preparing plant materials for elemental analysis. The two techniques generally give similar results for the analysis of plant materials but differences have been observed in results using the two methods for elements such as calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). We made a study to compare the dry ashing and triacid digestion procedures for determining potassium (K), Ca, magnesium (Mg), Fe, manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and Zn in sorghum and rice plant samples having a range in concentration of these elements. For sorghum, the two procedures gave similar results for the determination of K, 95
Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL.
Present study investigates the cultivable diversity of root-associated bacteria from a medicinal plant Ajuga bracteosa in the Kangra valley, in order to determine their plant growth promoting (PGP) and biotechnological potential. The plant was found to exhibit a positive rhizosphere effect of 1.3-1.5. A total of 123 morphologically different bacteria were isolated from the rhizospheric soil and roots of the plant. Medium composition was found to have significant effect on the composition of isolated bacterial populations. Majority of the rhizospheric soil isolates belonged to α- and γ-Proteobacteria, with Pseudomonas constituting the most dominant species. Endophytic bacterial community, on other hand, consisted almost exclusively of Firmicutes. Majority of the isolates showed PGP activity by producing siderophores and indole acetic acid. Several isolates were found to exhibit very high antioxidant activity in the culture medium. A significant proportion of isolates also demonstrated other ecologically important activities like phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, and production of hydrolytic enzymes including amylase, protease, lipase, chitinase, cellulase, pectinase and phosphatase. Firmicutes were found to be metabolically the most versatile group and performed multiple enzyme activities. This is the first systematic study of culturable bacterial community from the rhizosphere of A. bracteosa, particularly in the Kangra valley region.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2024 scite LLC. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.