Multimodal learning analytics provides researchers new tools and techniques to capture different types of data from complex learning activities in dynamic learning environments. This paper investigates the use of diverse sensors, including computer vision, user‐generated content, and data from the learning objects (physical computing components), to record high‐fidelity synchronised multimodal recordings of small groups of learners interacting. We processed and extracted different aspects of the students' interactions to answer the following question: Which features of student group work are good predictors of team success in open‐ended tasks with physical computing? To answer this question, we have explored different supervised machine learning approaches (traditional and deep learning techniques) to analyse the data coming from multiple sources. The results illustrate that state‐of‐the‐art computational techniques can be used to generate insights into the "black box" of learning in students' project‐based activities. The features identified from the analysis show that distance between learners' hands and faces is a strong predictor of students' artefact quality, which can indicate the value of student collaboration. Our research shows that new and promising approaches such as neural networks, and more traditional regression approaches can both be used to classify multimodal learning analytics data, and both have advantages and disadvantages depending on the research questions and contexts being investigated. The work presented here is a significant contribution towards developing techniques to automatically identify the key aspects of students success in project‐based learning environments, and to ultimately help teachers provide appropriate and timely support to students in these fundamental aspects.
The use of drones in agriculture is becoming more and more popular. The paper presents a novel approach to dis- tinguish between different field’s plowing techniques by means of an RGB-D sensor. The presented system can be easily integrated in commercially available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In order to successfully classify the plowing techniques, two different measurement algorithms have been developed. Experimental tests show that the proposed methodology is able to provide a good classification of the field’s plowing depth
This paper presents a simple and robust method for the automatic localisation of static 3D objects in large-scale urban environments. By exploiting the potential to merge a large volume of noisy but accurately localised 2D image data, we achieve superior performance in terms of both robustness and accuracy of the recovered 3D information. The method is based on a simple distributed voting schema which can be fully distributed and parallelised to scale to large-scale scenarios.To evaluate the method we collected city-scale data sets from New York City and San Francisco consisting of almost 400k images spanning the area of 40 km 2 and used it to accurately recover the 3D positions of traffic lights. We demonstrate a robust performance and also show that the solution improves in quality over time as the amount of data increases.
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