-Lightweight materials, such as ultra-high strength steel, titanium alloys and aluminum alloys, are used widely in aerospace and automobile industries leading to increasing demands for advanced forming technologies. Recently many innovative sheet-and tube-forming methods have been proposed by researchers and R&D facilities around the word. These methods can greatly improve the formability of materials with low plasticity and can produce complex-shaped parts with good surface qualities. This review aims at providing an insight into the latest developments of particular sheet-or tubular-metal forming process and shows basic applications in modern industry.
An elliptical warm/hot sheet bulging test under different temperatures and pressure rates was carried out to predict Al-alloy sheet forming limit during warm/hot sheet hydroforming. Using relevant formulas of ultimate strain to calculate and dispose experimental data, forming limit curves (FLCS) in tension–tension state of strain (TTSS) area are obtained. Combining with the basic experimental data obtained by uniaxial tensile test under the equivalent condition with bulging test, complete forming limit diagrams (FLDS) of Al-alloy are established. Using a quadratic polynomial curve fitting method, material constants of fitting function are calculated and a prediction model equation for sheet metal forming limit is established, by which the corresponding forming limit curves in TTSS area can be obtained. The bulging test and fitting results indicated that the sheet metal FLCS obtained were very accurate. Also, the model equation can be used to instruct warm/hot sheet bulging test.
In order to predict the wrinkling of sheet metal under the influence of fluid pressure and temperature during warm/hot hydroforming, a numerical simulation model for sheet wrinkling prediction was established, taking into account through-thickness normal stress induced by fluid pressure. From simulations using linear and quadratic elements, respectively, it was found that the latter gave results that were much closer to experimental data. A novel experimental method based on an improved Yoshida Buckling Test (YBT) was proposed for testing the wrinkling properties of sheets under the through-thickness normal stress. A wrinkling coefficient suitable for predicting wrinkling was also presented. Based on the numerical simulations, an experimental validation of wrinkling performance was conducted. Ridge-height curves measured along the main diagonal tensile direction of the sheet were presented and showed that the wrinkling prediction criterion provided good discrimination. Furthermore, the wrinkling properties of several different materials were simulated to evaluate the accuracy of the prediction method, and the results revealed that the improved YBT gave good predictions for wrinkling in the conventional sheet metal forming process, while the prediction results for wrinkling in warm/hot sheet hydroforming were also accurate with the fluid pressure of zero.
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