A large-scale shaking table test was performed to study the dynamic response of slopes parallel to geological bedding (bedding slopes) and slopes that cross-cut geological bedding (counter-bedding slopes). The test results show that the acceleration amplification coefficients increase with increasing elevation and, when the input earthquake amplitude is greater than 0.3 g, both bedding and counter-bedding slopes begin to show nonlinear dynamic response characteristics. With increasing elevation, the displacement of the bedding slope surface increases greatly. Conversely, the displacement of the counter-bedding slope surface increases first and then decreases; the slope develops a bulge at the relative elevation of 0.85. The displacement of the bedding slope surface is greater than that of the counter-bedding slope. The counter-bedding slope is more seismically stable compared with the bedding slope. Based on the Hilbert-Huang transform and marginal spectrum theories, the processes that develop dynamic damage of the bedding and counter-bedding slopes are identified. It is shown that the dynamic failure mode of the bedding slope is mainly represented by vertical tensile cracks at the rear of the slope, bedding slide of the strata along the weak intercalation, and rock collapse from the slope crest. However, the dynamic failure mode of the counter-bedding slope is mainly represented by staggered horizontal and vertical fissures, extrusion of the weak intercalation, and breakage at the slope crest.
The 2019 Shuicheng landslide was a typical landslide in that failure occurred in the slope deposits and there was a close correlation with the antecedent rainfall. The initiation mechanism was analysed using field investigations, laboratory tests and numerical simulations and the characteristics of mass movement were quantitatively assessed. The numerical results indicated that the infiltration of rainfall decreased the shear resistance of the slope and increased the pore water pressure and soil weight, resulting in a large deformation of the slope and a gradual deterioration in its stability. After saturation, as the pore water pressure coefficient (ru) approached 0.3, the overall safety factor decreased to 1 and failure eventually occurred. Quantitative mass assessment showed that the unique terrain aggravated the erosion and entrainment effects and that the inclusion of loose material and water promoted the movement of the debris avalanche by changing it into a fluidized state, resulting in a much larger landslide volume with a long runout distance. As a result, the volume of the failed mass, which was calculated by an unmanned aerial vehicle and terrestrial laser scanning modelling techniques to be c. 4.7 × 105 m3 in the source area, almost quadrupled to >2.0 × 106 m3.
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