An updated and annotated checklist of mammals occurring in Brazil is presented. A total of 751 native species, distributed in 249 genera, families and 11 orders were recorded to the country. The Brazilian mammalian fauna shows an elevated rate of endemism (30%; 223 species). Among the species evaluated by IUCN (668 species; 90%), a total of 80 (10.6% of total mammalian fauna) are Threatened, 28 (3.9%) are considered as Near Threatened, two species (0.3%) are presumable Extinct, 96 (12.8%) are considered with Defi cient Data for conservation and 462 (61.6%) are considered as Least Concern. Fifteen new species were described since the last national compilation (published in 2017), which associated to new records to the country and synonimizations resulted in an increment of 30 species. Eight non-native species were introduced to the country, including the recently established Asiatic cervids Rusa unicolor (sambar) and Axis axis (chital). Seven native species (fi ve primates and two hystricomorph rodents) have been translocated from their areas of natural occurrence to other areas inside the country.
Resumo Este estudo apresenta dados referentes à composição da dieta de Lontra longicaudis em um arroio costeiro com vegetação ripária, localizado na região sul da Planície Costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Entre fevereiro de 2007 e maio de 2008, 242 amostras de fezes e seis restos alimentares foram coletados em um trecho de aproximadamente 1.100 m do arroio Bolaxa, na Área de Proteção Ambiental da Lagoa Verde. Os itens identificados como os mais consumidos foram peixes (82,6%), seguidos por crustáceos decápodes (20,6%). Outros itens, encontrados em menor freqüência, foram: aves, mamíferos, répteis, anfíbios, insetos e moluscos. Na análise dos restos alimentares, foi possível a identificação de Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae) e Rhamdia quelem (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae). Dentre os peixes, a família mais freqüente nas amostras fecais foi Cichlidae (59,5%), seguida por Curimatidae (32,6%). Outras famílias, encontradas em menor freqüência, foram Erythrinidae, Heptapteridae, Characidae, Mugilidae, Callichthyidae e Synbranchidae. Foi verificada uma dieta variada, reflexo, em parte, da influência dos ecossistemas adjacentes sobre a área de estudo.
ABSTRACT. Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798) is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae) fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes), birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu). Levin's index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45) indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka's index (0.80) showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil. KEYWORDS.Bromelia antiacantha, crab-eating racoon, feeding habits, subtropical Brazil, Syagrus romanzoffiana. RESUMO. Dieta de Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae) em ambientes de restinga e estuarino no Sul do Brasil. Apesar de sua ampla distribuição e abundância em determinados habitats, o mão-pelada Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798) é considerado uma das menos conhecidas espécies de carnívoro Neotropical. No presente estudo analisamos a dieta de P. cancrivorus em uma mata paludosa e uma ilha estuarina no extremo sul do Brasil. Frutos da palmeira gerivá Syagrus romanzoffiana foi o item mais consumido na mata paludosa, seguido por insetos e moluscos. Pequenos mamíferos, seguidos por frutos de Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae) e crustáceos braquiúros foram os itens mais frequentes na ilha estuarina. Outros itens encontrados em menor frequência foram frutos de Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp., diplópodos, escorpiões, peixes, anfíbios anuros, répteis (teiú e serpentes), aves e mamíferos de médio porte (gambá-da-orelha-branca, tatu e ratão-do-banhado). Os valores do índice de Levin (mata paludosa: 0.38; ilha estuarina: 0.45) indicam uma aproximação a uma posição mediana entre uma dieta especialista e bem distribuída. O índice de Pianka (0.80) mostrou uma considerável similaridade na dieta entre os dois sistemas. Procyon cancrivorus apresentou uma dieta variada nas áreas estudadas e pode desempenhar um importante papel como dispersor de sementes em ecossistemas costeiros no extremo sul do Brasil.
We investigated reproductive features of the dipsadid snake Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus sublineatus in the southernmost Brazilian coast, a subtropical region characterized by well-marked seasons. Females are significantly smaller than males, have a shorter tail, and reach sexual maturity at later times along their development. In contrast to tropical subspecies, E. p. sublineatus females presented a seasonal pattern, with secondary follicles occurring from late winter to early autumn and egg production restricted to the whole spring and early summer. Males presented seasonal variation in testes volume (increase in autumn and decrease in winter) while no significant seasonal variation was found in ductus deferens width. The number of oviductal eggs varied from two to nine, thus, real fecundity is also inferior than that observed in tropical E. poecilogyrus forms. Considering the thermal requirements for reproduction, it is possible that the colder climatic conditions of the southern Brazilian coast have shaped the seasonal reproductive pattern in E. p. sublineatus. The shorter body size of this subspecies may also represent a conditioning factor of low fecundity.
A new species of casque-headed tree frog of the genus Aparasphenodon is described from the municipality of Cataguases (21º20'S, 42º45'W; 288 m a.s.l.) in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Aparasphenodon pomba sp. nov. is characterized by medium size (males, snout-vent length, SVL 51.6-60.5 mm; females, SVL 58.7-62.1 mm); snout almost round in dorsal view; dorsum and limbs with cream-colored reticulation on dark-brown background; spots on ventral surface cream-colored; lips white; cream-colored dorsolateral stripe originating on the snout, crossing the upper eyelid and extending posteriorly to the axilla level; and red iris.
We describe a new karyotype for Cavia magna Ximenez, 1980 from an estuarine island and the karyotype of Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777 from an adjacent mainland. The species have differences in diploid number (2n), autosomal fundamental number, quantity, and distribution of heterochromatin as dissimilar distributions of the nucleolus-organizing regions (Ag-NORs). The C. aperea karyotype has a diploid number of 64 as previously reported for C. aperea and most other Cavia species. In contrast, this new C. magna karyotype exhibits a variant diploid number of 2n=62, considering that previous work reported a karyotype of 2n=64 for C. magna. The discovery of a distinct diploid number within C. magna represents the first record of intra-specific chromosomal variation in a species of Caviidae. The diploid number of 2n=62, heterochromatin quantity, Ag-NOR distributions, and inversed X chromosome from this population of C. magna are as seen in the geographically proximate (Cavia intermedia Cherem Olimpio and Ximenez; intermediate Cavy). These data provide further evidence supporting C. magna as the sister species of C. intermedia.
Pleistocene climatic oscillations favoured the expansion of grassland ecosystems and open vegetation landscapes throughout the Neotropics, and influenced the evolutionary history of species adapted to such environments. In this study, we sampled populations of the rodent Oxymycterus nasutus endemic to open areas in the Pampas and Atlantic Forest biomes to assess the tempo and mode of population divergence using an integrative approach, including coalescence theory, ecological niche models, and morphometry. Our results indicated that these O. nasutus populations exhibited high levels of genetic structure. Six major mtDNA clades were found, structuring these biomes into distinct groups. Estimates of their divergence times was indicated to be 0.571 myr. The high degree of genetic structure is reflected in the analyses of geometric morphometric; skull differences between lineages in the two ecoregions were detected. During the last glacial maximum, there was a strong increase in suitable abiotic conditions for O. nasutus. Distinct molecular markers revealed a population expansion over time, with a possible demographic retraction during the post-glacial period. Considering that all clades coalesce with the last interglacial maximum, our results indicated that reduction in suitable conditions during this period may have resulted in a possible vicariance associated with refuge isolation.
A new species of swamp rat of the genus Scapteromys from the Meridional Plateau of Southern Brazil is described. Morphological, molecular, and karyological analysis support the recognition of the new species, distinct from S. aquaticus and S. tumidus. Scapteromys sp. nov. is significantly smaller than the congeneric taxa considering most of the external and craniometric measurements and the pelage is conspicuously grayer and darker. It can be distinguished from S. tumidus by the laterally extended thenar pad of the manus and the parallel edges of the hamular process of the pterygoid, and from S. aquaticus by a grayer and darker pelage and smaller values of most external and craniometric measurements. Karyological analysis indicated a difference in chromosome numbers across the distributional range: 2n=34 and 2n=36. A total of 11 haplotypes were found along the range of the new species within the biogeographic province of Araucaria angustifolia Forest. Strongly supported substructure was found within the new taxon, resulting in two reciprocally monophyletic clades.
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