The mating of the Neotropical lycosid Schizocosa malitiosa is long and complex, involving intense genital stimulation and copulatory courtship. This suggests functions other than just insemination. Previous data indicated that mated females of this species are less sexually receptive than virgins. We hypothesise that copulatory characteristics presented by males during prolonged copulations could be responsible for subsequent female sexual reluctance, and may be selected by cryptic female choice. Our objective was to examine the influence of copulatory behaviour on subsequent female sexual receptivity in S. malitiosa, isolating it from the effects of sperm transfer per se. For this purpose, we obtained males without sperm in their copulatory organs (palpal bulbs), and prevented them from charging their palps by sealing their genital pores immediately after their last moult (treated males). Virgin females were separated into three groups: (i) females exposed once to normal males, (ii) females exposed twice to normal males, and (iii) females exposed first to treated and second to normal males. The results showed that, 3 d after their first mating, females first mated with untreated males were frequently refractory to remating, whereas all those first mated with treated males were receptive. Copulations performed by treated males showed some differences from those performed by normal males, but maintained the basic behavioural pattern with abundant sexual stimulation. The presence of sperm fluids in the female receptacles appears to be the most likely factor generating female remating reluctance. Males may manipulate female responses using receptivity inhibiting substances in their sperm, like those described for insects. Females would first ensure sperm supply, becoming more choosy afterwards. All females, whether mated once or twice, generated similar numbers of progeny, indicating no relationship between number of matings and number of spiderlings.
Allocosa brasiliensis (Petrunkevitch, 1910) is a nocturnal wolf spider inhabitant of coastal dunes. Pitfall-trap data suggested the occurrence of two sympatric and synchronic morphs, with differences in adult size and abdominal design (minor and major morphs). Previous studies performed with the major morph of A. brasiliensis, postulated courtship-role and sexual size dimorphism reversal for this spider. In the present study, we compare data on development and morphology and test reproductive isolation between morphs of A. brasiliensis, with the hypotheses that the two morphs are reproductively isolated and both show courtship-role reversal. As had been reported for the major morph of A. brasiliensis, the minor-morph females approached the burrows of minor-morph males, entered, initiated courtship, and after copulation, males closed their burrows with female cooperation from the inside. Females did not court or copulate with males belonging to the other morph and, in two cases, major-morph females cannibalised minor-morph males. Morphometrical and developmental data showed differences between morphs. The occurrence of copulation only between individuals of the same morph confirm reproductive isolation, supporting the occurrence of two species. Morphological and behavioural data are consistent with courtship-role-reversal hypotheses for the minor morph, constituting the second report in spiders of this atypical behaviour.
Spatial distribution, burrow morphology, phenology, defensive displays and predation of two theraphosid spiders living in meadows were studied in Uruguay. Exhaustive field studies complemented with laboratory observations were carried out. Eupalaestrus weijenberghi occurred throughout the country while Acanthoscurria suina occurred only in the southern half. Both species seemed to be the most abundant theraphosid spiders in Uruguay as they live in the dominant landscape of the country. Burrows from both species showed a similar morphological pattern but a terminal narrow tube was found only in E. weijenberghi. We observed that A. suina always co-occurred with E. weijenberghi but this species frequently occurred in the absence of the former. When cooccurring A. suina showed an aggregated distribution while E. weijenberghi was randomly distributed. A restricted reproductive period was found for both species, mainly between March and April, evidenced by the massive presence of walking adult males and then confirmed by pit-fall traps. Moulting, oviposition and longevity were also studied. Conspicuous species-specific defensive behaviours were displayed by the tarantulas in all cases, when collected. These tarantulas showed spatial co-occurrence and temporal coexistence with the beetle Diloboderus abderus, an important pest of grasslands. Tarantula predation on adult beetles was confirmed, these spiders being one of the few beetle predators. Their maximal efficiency in beetle predation could reach 65 000 prey captured per hectare by month. These polyphagous tarantulas seem to be potential agents for the biological control of beetle pests.
We describe the reproductive biology of seven theraphosid species from Uruguay. Species under study include the Ischnocolinae Oligoxystre argentinense and the Theraphosinae Acanthoscurria suina, Eupalaestrus weijenberghi, Grammostola iheringi, G. mollicoma, Homoeomma uruguayeme and Plesiopelma longisternale. Sexual activity periods were estimated from the occurrence of walking adult males. Sperm induction was described from laboratory studies. Courtship and mating were also described from both field and laboratory observations. Oviposition and egg sac care were studied in the field and laboratory. Two complete cycles including female molting and copulation, egg sac construction and emergence of juveniles were reported for the first time in E. weijenberghi and O. argentinense. The life span of adults was studied and the whole life span was estimated up to 30 years in female G. mollicoma, which seems to be a record for spiders. A com.prehensive review of literature on theraphosid reproductive biology was undertaken. In the discussion, we consider the lengthy and costly sperm induction, the widespread display by body vibrations of courting males, multiple mating strategies of both sexes and the absence of sexual cannibalism.
Male wolf spiders are capable of recognising sexual signals associated with female silk threads. In the wolf spider Schizocosa malitiosa variations in female receptivity have been studied, but changes in female silk attractiveness remain unknown. We analysed the sexual responses of adult males (leg shaking, papal drumming and searching) exposed to silk cues from subadult, virgin and mated females of different ages, and females that were or were not carrying an egg-sac. Penultimate and recently moulted adult females elicited low levels of male sexual behaviour, while those of virgin females (21-40 days old) were the most attractive. Silk threads slowly became less attractive after mating. Cues from females carrying an eggsac as well as females in the inter egg-sac period were fairly attractive. The low attractiveness of recently moulted females disagrees with their high sexual receptivity. In contrast, females continued to elicit strong male responses during a 10-day period after mating, despite the fact that they immediately become sexually reluctant, suggesting strong selection for male searching ability. Low attractiveness during the egg-carrying period could reflect the fact that females do not require any further sperm. Concordances and discordances between attractiveness and sexual receptivity suggest that they respond to different physiological mechanisms.
RESUMO -Foram realizados dois experimentos para determinar o nível ideal de proteína bruta para frangos de corte Ross de ambos os sexos, nas fases inicial (1 a 21) e crescimento (22 a 42 dias de idade). Foram avaliados: o ganho de peso (GP), consumo de ração (CR), conversão alimentar (CA) e características de carcaça. Para cada fase, o delineamento experimental foi em blocos inteiramente casualisados. Na fase inicial, utilizou-se um fatorial 2x6, constituído de dois sexos e seis níveis de proteína bruta (20,00; 20,50; 21,00; 21,50; 22,00 e 22,50%), seis repetições e um total de 1440 aves. Na fase de crescimento, utilizou-se um fatorial 2x5, constituído de dois sexos e cinco níveis de proteína bruta (17,50; 18,00; 18,50; 19,00 e 19,50%), seis repetições e um total de 1200 aves. Os níveis de lisina total utilizados foram 1,27% e 1,16%, respectivamente para as fases inicial e de crescimento. Foram mantidas as relações lisina: metionina+cistina, treonina, triptofano e arginina, levando em consideração o perfil da proteína ideal. Com base nos resultados de desempenho, a exigência de proteína bruta estimada para machos, na fase de 1 a 21 dias foi de 22,42% PB, enquanto que para fêmeas, observou-se efeito linear para GP e CA. Na fase de crescimento, os machos responderam linearmente aos níveis de proteína para CR, CA, rendimento de peito e gordura abdominal, tendo estes resultados melhorados à medida que se aumentava o nível de proteína bruta da ração. Para as fêmeas, verificou-se efeito quadrático do nível dietético de proteína para GP e efeito linear para CA e gordura abdominal. Os níveis de proteína bruta estimados foram: na fase inicial 22,4 e 22,5% e na fase de crescimento 19,5 e 18,5% de PB, respectivamente, para machos e fêmeas.Palavras-chave: avaliação de carcaça, exigência, frangos de corte, proteína bruta Dietary Crude Protein Levels for Broilers Chickens from 1 to 21 and 22 to 42 Days of AgeABSTRACT -Two experiments were carried out to determine the ideal levels of crude protein (CP) for Ross broiler chickens from one to 21 and 22 to 42 days of age, of both sexes. The parameters evaluated were weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), feed:gain ratio (F/G) and carcass evaluation (CV). In the starting phase (1 to 21 days of age), different protein levels (20.00; 20.50; 21.00; 21.50; 22.00 and 22.50%) were used in diets containing 1.27% total lysine. In growing phase (22 to 42 days of age), the dietary protein levels were 17.50; 18.00; 18.50; 19.00 and 19.50% with 1.16% total lysine. In both experiments, were maintained ratio lysine: methionine+cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine, considering the ideal protein profile. In both experiments, a completely randomized block experimental design, in a 2x6 and 2x5 (two sexes and six or five dietary lysine levels) factorial arrangement, was used, with six replicates, using a total of 1440 and 1200 birds, respectively. Considering bird performance, the dietary CP requirement estimate from 1 to 21 days, for the males was 22.42% CP, while the females showed linear effec...
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers