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Threshing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at high speeds is the main reason behind abnormal seedlings and vigor reduction of the seeds. This problem is expected to be severe in head‐stripper combines with successive impact loadings of stripping and threshing units. The aim of this study was to simulate the effects of impact velocities (IV), number of impact loadings (NL), and seed moisture content (MC) on percentage of physical damage (PPD) and percentage of loss in germination (PLG) to wheat seeds. Modeling the correlation between dependent and independent variables was performed using mathematical and artificial neural networks (ANN). The result showed that all the three independent variables significantly influenced PPD and PLG (P = 0.01). Increasing the IV from 5 to 30 m s−1 caused an increase in PPD and PLG from 0.17 to 35.8% and from 0.37 to 19.9%, respectively. It was found that the seeds with higher MC could better withstand physical and physiological damage than those with lower MC. With an increase in NL from 1 to 3 times, the mean values of PPD and PLG were increased by 2.9 and 2.6 times, respectively. An ANN model with two hidden layers, trained with a back‐propagation algorithm, successfully learned the relationship between the input and output variables. In comparison with regression models, ANN performed better when predicting PPD and PLG to wheat seeds.

Introduction Mechanical damage of seeds due to harvest, handling and other process is an important factor that affects the quality of seeds. Objectives To evaluate the impact damage to navy bean seeds. Methods The study was conducted under laboratory conditions, using an impact damage assessment device. Independent variables were: seed moisture content (10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, and 25% wet basis), impact velocity (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15 m/s) and seed orientation (side and end). Results Impact velocity, moisture content and seed orientation were all significant at the 1% level on the physical damage in seeds. Increasing the impact velocity from 5 to 15 m/s caused an increase in the mean values of damage from 0.17 to 32.88%. The mean values of physical damage decreased significantly by 1.96 times (from 27.09 to 13.79%), with increase in the moisture content from 10 to 15%. However, by a higher increase in the moisture from 15 to 25%, the mean value of damage showed a non-significant increasing trend. It was found that the relationship between beans mechanical damage with moisture content and velocity of impact was non-linear and the percentage damage to seeds was a quadratic function of moisture content and impact velocity, respectively. Impact to the end of the seeds produced the higher damage (20.61%) than side of the seeds (11.14%). Conclusion To minimize physical damage to navy bean seeds, the impact velocity should be limited to 10 m/s or below. The optimum level of moisture, where impact damage was minimized, was about 15%.

A b s t r a c t. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the aerodynamic properties of Makhobeli, triticale and wheat seeds as a function of moisture content from 7 to 27% (w.b). The results showed that the terminal velocity of triticale and wheat seeds increased linearly from 5.37 to 6.42 and from 6.31 to 8.02 m s -1 , respectively, as the moisture content increased from 7 to 27%. Over this same moisture content range, the terminal velocity of Makhobeli seeds varied following a polynomial relationship from 4.52 to 5.07 m s -1 . Makhobeli seeds had terminal velocities with a mean value of 4.73 m s -1 , at different moisture contents, compared to the mean values of 5.89 and 7.13 m s -1 for triticale and wheat seeds, respectively. The mean value of drag coefficient was 1.12 for Makhobeli compared to the values of 0.92 and 0.85 for triticale and wheat, respectively. The analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences between the terminal velocity (at 1% probability level) and drag coefficient (at 5% probability level) of Makhobeli with triticale and wheat seeds, which suggests that aerodynamic separation of Makhobeli from triticale and wheat is possible.K e y w o r d s: separation, post harvest operation, Makhobeli, weed control, triticale, wheat

A b s t r a c t. Aerodynamic properties of solid materials have long been used to convey and separate seeds and grains during post-harvest operations. The objective of this study was evaluation of the aerodynamic properties of green and red lentil seeds as a function of moisture content from 10 to 25% (w.b.). The results showed that as the moisture content increased from 10 to 25%, the terminal velocity of seeds increased, following a linear relationship, from 6.90 to 9.14 and from 6.37 to 7.67 m s -1 for green and red lentil seeds, respectively. Seeds of the green variety had terminal velocities with a mean value of 7.89 m s -1 , while the red variety had a mean value of 7.02 m s -1 , for moisture content from 10 to 25%. The Reynolds number increased linearly from 2 310.90 to 3 269.23 and from 1 215.02 to 1 535.09 for green and red lentil seeds, respectively, with the increase of seeds moisture content from 10 to 25%. While, drag coefficient decreased from 0.69 to 0.40 and from 0.84 to 0.69 for green and red lentil seeds, respectively, with the increase of moisture content. Mathematical relationships were developed to relate the change in seeds moisture content with the values of aerodynamic properties obtained. The analysis of variance showed that the effect of moisture content on all aerodynamic properties of lentil beans was significant at the 1% probability level.

The objective of this research was to evaluate and model the mechanical damage to corn seeds under impact loading. The experiments were conducted at moisture contents of 7.60 to 25% (wet basis) and at the impact energies of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 J, using an impact damage assessment device. The results showed that impact energy, moisture content, and the interaction effects of these two variables significantly influenced the percentage of physical damage in corn seeds (p<0.01). Increasing the impact of the energy from 0.1 to 0.3 J caused a significant increase in the mean values of damage from 23.73 to 83.49%. The mean values of physical damage decreased significantly by a factor of 1.92 (from 83.75 to 43.56%), with an increase in the moisture content from 7.6 to 20%. However, by a higher increase in the moisture from 20 to 25%, the mean value of damage showed a non-significant increasing trend. There was an optimum moisture level of about 17 to 20%, at which seed damage was minimized. An empirical model composed of seed moisture content and energy impact was developed for accurately describing the percentage of physical damage to corn seeds. It was found that the model has provided satisfactory results over the whole set of values for the dependent variable.

A b s t r a c t. Aerodynamic properties of solid materials have long been used to convey and separate seeds and grains during post harvest operations. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the aerodynamic properties of mung bean seeds as a function of moisture content and two grades referred to above and below a cut point of 4.8 mm in length. The results showed that as the moisture content increased from 7.8 to 25% (w.b.), the terminal velocity of seeds increased following a polynomial relationship, from 7.28 to 8.79 and 6.02 to 7.12 m s -1 , for grades A and B, respectively. Seeds at grade A had terminal velocities with a mean value of 8.05 m s -1 , while at grade B had a mean value of 6.46 m s -1 . The Reynolds number of both grades increased linearly with the increase of seeds moisture content, while the drag coefficient decreased with the increase of moisture content. Mathematical relationships were developed to relate the change in seeds moisture content with the obtained values of aerodynamic properties. The analysis of variance showed that moisture content had a significant effect, at 1% probability level, on all the aerodynamics properties of mung beans.K e y w o r d s: aerodynamic properties, separation, post harvest operation, mung bean seed INTRODUCTION

Mechanical damage of seeds due to harvest, handling and other process is an important factor that affects the quality and quantity of seeds. Seed damage result in lower grain value, storability problem, and reduced seed germination and seedling vigor and subsequent yield of crops. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of moisture content and impact energy on the breakage susceptibility of wheat and triticale seeds. The experiments were conducted at five moisture contents of 7.5, 12, 17, 22 and 27% w.b. and at the impact energies of 0.05 and 0.1 J. The percentage of breakage of both wheat and triticale seeds increased as impact energy increased. The analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference between breakage susceptibility of wheat and triticale seeds at the 1% probability level. Triticale seeds had more breakage than wheat seeds. For both wheat and triticale seeds as the moisture content of the seeds increased, the amount of the percentage breakage of seeds decreased as a polynomial. The average values of percentage breakage of wheat seeds decreased from 43.81 to 19.88% as the moisture content increased from 7.5 to 27%. Over this same moisture content range the percentage breakage of triticale seeds varied from 81.34 to 37.77%. Below the moisture contents of 17% for the wheat and 22% for the triticale the percentage breakage of seeds increased dramatically.

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