This study illustrates the validity and reliability of the KOOS in measuring the functional status and quality of life of athletes after ACL reconstruction. This study further validates the use of the KOOS in highly competitive athletes in research on knee injuries.
Nattokinase (NK, also known as subtilisin NAT) (EC 126.96.36.199) is one of the most considerable extracellular enzymes produced by Bacillus subtilis natto. The main interest about this enzyme is due to its direct fibrinolytic activity. Being stable enough in the gastrointestinal tract makes this enzyme a useful agent for the oral thrombolytic therapy. Thus, NK is regarded as a valuable dietary supplement or nutraceutical. Proven safety and ease of mass production are other advantages of this enzyme. In addition to these valuable advantages, there are other applications attributed to NK including treatment of hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, and vitreoretinal disorders. This review tends to bring a brief description about this valuable enzyme and summarizes the various biotechnological approaches used in its production, recovery, and purification. Some of the most important applications of NK, as well as its future prospects, are also discussed.
At the time of return to sports, the STG group had better performance in terms of quadriceps strength and the results of the triple-hop, crossover-hop, and jump-landing tests compared with the BPTB group. Compared with controls, soccer players who had undergone ACL reconstruction had less quadriceps and hamstrings strength and inferior hop performance and jump-landing strategy.
This exploratory study aimed to identify which aspects of postural control are able to distinguish between subgroups of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls. Balance was tested using static and dynamic posturography. Freezers (n = 9), nonfreezers (n = 10), and controls (n = 10) stood on a movable force platform and performed 3 randomly assigned tests: (1) sensory organization test (SOT) to evaluate the effective use of sensory information, (2) motor control test (MCT) to assess automatic postural reactions in response to platform perturbations, and (3) rhythmic weight shift test (RWS) to evaluate the ability to voluntarily move the center of gravity (COG) mediolaterally and anterior-posteriorly (AP). The respective outcome measures were equilibrium and postural strategy scores, response strength and amplitude of weight shift. Patients were in the “on” phase of the medication cycle. In general, freezers performed similarly on SOT and MCT compared to nonfreezers. Freezers showed an intact postural strategy during sensory manipulations and an appropriate response to external perturbations. However, during voluntary weight shifting, freezers showed poorer directional control compared to nonfreezers and controls. This suggests that freezers have adequate automatic postural control and sensory integration abilities in quiet stance, but show specific directional control deficits when weight shifting is voluntary.
Freezers have more difficulties adapting their gait during both suddenly triggered and continued gait speed asymmetry. The impaired ability of freezers during both switching and reswitching would suggest that they have an adaptive deficit rather than difficulties with asymmetry per se. Future work needs to address whether these adaptation problems can be ameliorated with rehabilitation.
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