We investigate the relation between X-ray nuclear emission, optical emission line luminosities and black hole masses for a sample of 47 Seyfert galaxies. The sample, which has been selected from the Palomar optical spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies (Ho et al. 1997a, ApJS, 112, 315), covers a wide range of nuclear powers, from L 2−10 keV ∼ 10 43 erg/s down to very low luminosities (L 2−10 keV ∼ 10 38 erg/s). Best available data from Chandra, XMM-Newton and, in a few cases, ASCA observations have been considered. Thanks to the good spatial resolution available from these observations and a proper modeling of the various spectral components, it has been possible to obtain accurate nuclear X-ray luminosities not contaminated by off-nuclear sources and/or diffuse emission. X-ray luminosities have then been corrected taking into account the likely candidate Compton thick sources, which are a high fraction (>30%) among type 2 Seyferts in our sample. The main result of this study is that we confirm strong linear correlations between 2-10 keV, [OIII]λ5007, H α luminosities which show the same slope as quasars and luminous Seyfert galaxies, independent of the level of nuclear activity displayed. Moreover, despite the wide range of Eddington ratios (L/L Edd ) tested here (six orders of magnitude, from 0.1 down to ∼10 −7 ), no correlation is found between the X-ray or optical emission line luminosities and the black hole mass. Our results suggest that Seyfert nuclei in our sample are consistent with being a scaled-down version of more luminous AGN.
Previous detections of individual astrophysical sources of neutrinos are limited to the Sun and the supernova 1987A, whereas the origins of the diffuse flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos remain unidentified. On 22 September 2017, we detected a high-energy neutrino, IceCube-170922A, with an energy of ~290 tera-electron volts. Its arrival direction was consistent with the location of a known γ-ray blazar, TXS 0506+056, observed to be in a flaring state. An extensive multiwavelength campaign followed, ranging from radio frequencies to γ-rays. These observations characterize the variability and energetics of the blazar and include the detection of TXS 0506+056 in very-high-energy γ-rays. This observation of a neutrino in spatial coincidence with a γ-ray-emitting blazar during an active phase suggests that blazars may be a source of high-energy neutrinos.
Results obtained from an X-ray spectral survey of nearby Seyfert galaxies using XMM-Newton are reported. The sample was optically selected, well defined, complete in B magnitude, and distance limited: it consists of the nearest (D < ∼ 22 Mpc) 27 Seyfert galaxies (9 of type 1, 18 of type 2) taken from the Ho et al. (1997a, ApJS, 112, 315) sample. This is one of the largest atlases of hard X-ray spectra of low-luminosity active galaxies ever assembled. All nuclear sources except two Seyfert 2s are detected between 2 and 10 keV, half for the first time ever, and average spectra are obtained for all of them. Nuclear luminosities reach values down to 10 38 erg s −1 . The shape of the distribution of X-ray parameters is affected by the presence of Compton-thick objects ( > ∼ 30% among type 2s). The latter have been identified either directly from their intense FeK line and flat X-ray spectra, or indirectly with flux diagnostic diagrams which use isotropic indicators. After taking into account these highly absorbed sources, we find that (i) the intrinsic X-ray spectral properties (i.e., spectral shapes and luminosities above 2 keV) are consistent between type 1 and type 2 Seyferts, as expected from "unified models"; (ii) Seyfert galaxies as a whole are distributed fairly continuously over the entire range of N H , between 10 20 and 10 25 cm −2 ; and (iii) while Seyfert 1s tend to have lower N H and Seyfert 2s tend to have the highest, we find 30% and 10% exceptions, respectively. Overall the sample is of sufficient quality to well represent the average intrinsic X-ray spectral properties of nearby active galactic nuclei, including a proper estimate of the distribution of their absorbing columns. Finally, we conclude that, with the exception of a few cases, the present study agrees with predictions of unified models of Seyfert galaxies, and extends their validity down to very low luminosities.
We report on International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) observations of the soft γ-ray repeater SGR 1935+2154 performed between 2020 April 28 and May 3. Several short bursts with fluence of erg cm−2 were detected by the Imager on-board INTEGRAL (IBIS) instrument in the 20–200 keV range. The burst with the hardest spectrum, discovered and localized in real time by the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System, was spatially and temporally coincident with a short and very bright radio burst detected by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) and Survey for Transient Astronomical Radio Emission 2 (STARE2) radio telescopes at 400–800 MHz and 1.4 GHz, respectively. Its lightcurve shows three narrow peaks separated by ∼29 ms time intervals, superimposed on a broad pulse lasting ∼0.6 s. The brightest peak had a delay of 6.5 ± 1.0 ms with respect to the 1.4 GHz radio pulse (that coincides with the second and brightest component seen at lower frequencies). The burst spectrum, an exponentially cutoff power law with photon index and peak energy , is harder than those of the bursts usually observed from this and other magnetars. By the analysis of an expanding dust-scattering ring seen in X-rays with the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory X-ray Telescope (XRT) instrument, we derived a distance of kpc for SGR 1935+2154, independent of its possible association with the supernova remnant G57.2+0.8. At this distance, the burst 20–200 keV fluence of erg cm−2 corresponds to an isotropic emitted energy of erg. This is the first burst with a radio counterpart observed from a soft γ-ray repeater and it strongly supports models based on magnetars that have been proposed for extragalactic fast radio bursts.
We present the results of the correlation between the nuclear 2-10 keV X-ray and radio (at 2 cm, 6 cm, and 20 cm) luminosities for a well-defined sample of local Seyfert galaxies. We use a sample of low luminosity radio galaxies (LLRGs) for comparison. In both Seyfert and LLRG samples, X-ray and radio luminosities are significantly correlated over 8 orders of magnitude, indicating that the X-ray and radio emission sources are strongly coupled. Moreover, both samples show a similar regression slope, L X ∝ L 0.97 R , but Seyfert galaxies are three orders of magnitude less luminous in the radio band than LLRGs. This suggests that either similar physical mechanisms are responsible for the observed emission or a combination of different mechanisms ends up producing a similar correlation slope. Indeed, the common belief for LLRG is that both the X-ray and radio emission are likely dominated by a relativistic jet component, while in Seyfert galaxies the X-ray emission probably arises from a disk-corona system and the radio emission is attributed to a jet/outflow component. We investigate the radio loudness issue in the two samples and find that the Seyfert galaxies and the LLRGs show a different distribution of the radio loudness parameters. No correlation is found between the luminosity and the radio loudness; however, the latter is related to the black hole mass and anti-correlated with the Eddington ratio. The dichotomy in the radio loudness between Seyfert and LLRG observed down to low Eddington ratios, L 2−10 keV /L Edd ∼ 10 −8 , does not support the idea that the origin of the radio loudness is due to a switch in the accretion mode.
Abstract. We present a sample of 17 type 2 Seyfert galaxies which have an X-ray column density lower than 10 22 cm −2 . The Compton thin nature of these sources is strongly suggested by isotropic indicators. We estimate the fraction of these sources to be in the range of 10%-30% of the population of type 2 Seyfert galaxies. Furthermore, this fraction appears to increase progressively at lower luminosities. The simple formulation of the Unified Model for Seyfert galaxies is not applicable in such sources since the pc-scale molecular torus is not likely to be responsible for the low column density observed; instead the absorption observed is likely to originate at larger scales. According to this hypothesis, in these objects the broad line regions are covered by some dusty obscuring material. In particular, this could occur in objects with dust lanes, patches or HII regions. However, we cannot rule out that in the lowest luminosity sources the BLR is weak, absent or has faded away. This last scenario is consistent with the predictions of some recent theoretical models for low luminosity AGNs.
The central nuclei of galaxies, where super-massive black holes (SMBHs) are thought to reside, can experience phases of activity when they become Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). An AGN can eject winds, jets, and produce radiation across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The fraction of the bolometric emission in the radio spans a factor of ∼10 5 across the different AGN classes. The weakest radio sources, radio-quiet (RQ) AGN, are typically 1,000 times fainter than the radio-loud (RL) AGN, and represent the majority of the AGN population. In RL AGN, radio emission is essentially all produced by synchrotron emission from a relativistic jet. In contrast, in RQ AGN the absence of luminous jets allows us to probe radio emission from a wide range of possible mechanisms, from the host galaxy kpc scale down to the innermost region near the SMBHs: star formation, AGN driven wind, free-free emission from photo-ionized gas, low power jet, and the innermost accretion disc coronal activity. All these mechanisms can now be probed with unprecedented precision and spatial resolution, thanks to the current and forthcoming generation of highly sensitive radio arrays.
We study the NH distribution in a complete sample of 88 active galactic nuclei (AGN) selected in the 20–40 keV band from INTEGRAL/Imager on Board the Integral Satellite (IBIS) observations. We find that the fraction of absorbed (NH≥ 1022 cm2) sources is 43 per cent while the Compton thick AGN comprise 7 per cent of the sample. While these estimates are fully compatible with previous soft gamma‐ray surveys, they would appear to be in contrast with results reported by Risaliti, Maiolino & Salvati using an optically selected sample. This apparent difference can be explained as being due to a selection bias caused by the reduction in high energy flux in Compton thick objects rendering them invisible at our sensitivity limit. Taking this into account, we estimate that the fraction of highly absorbed sources is actually in close agreement with the optically selected sample. Furthermore, we show that the measured fraction of absorbed sources in our sample decreases from 80 to ∼20–30 per cent as a function of redshift with all Compton thick AGN having z≤ 0.015. If we limit our analysis to this distance and compare only the type 2 objects in our sample with the Risaliti et al. objects below this redshift value, we find a perfect match to their NH distribution. We conclude that in the low‐redshift bin we are seeing almost the entire AGN population, from unabsorbed to at least mildly Compton thick objects, while in the total sample we lose the heavily absorbed ‘counterparts’ of distant and therefore dim sources with little or no absorption. Taking therefore this low z bin as the only one able to provide the ‘true’ distribution of absorption in types 1 and 2 AGN, we estimate the fraction of Compton thick objects to be ≥24 per cent.
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