The adoption of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets (ABTs) was supposed to increase conservation awareness in different countries and regions of the world. However, there seems to be a limited understanding of the importance of ecosystem services, offered by biological diversity. Thus, the continued decline in biodiversity, especially in developing countries. This study appraised the level of success of the first target of Nigeria's National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP), which is hinged on the first ABT. In a national survey, data were obtained from a total of 1,124 respondents (839 professionals and 285 non-professionals), using a structured questionnaire. Information on the respondents' knowledge of biodiversity conservation and the associated ecosystem services, were elicited. Most of the non-professionals had a low level of understanding of biodiversity concepts (4.9 ± 1.7 to 20.5 ± 3.4%), while there was a moderate level of understanding among the professionals (48.0 ± 8.6 to 88.8 ± 3.4%). Awareness of the NBSAP was low for both groups (43.8 ± 7.2% professionals and 12.1 ± 3.7% non-professionals). The study concludes that there is a need to step up campaigns on biodiversity conservation in Nigeria and promote visits to natural sites. Youth engagement through the employment of graduates of biology-related disciplines, to educate the public on biodiversity conservation and the action plan, could also be a strong determinant to the success of the NBSAP targets.
Okomu National Park, Nigeria, a rainforest ecosystem is known for its endemic white-throated monkey (Cercopithecus erythrogaster) and rare red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) and a host of other forest mammals, some of which are endangered. Since its inception the area has been encroached for reasons that need to be studied. This study looked at the challenges of conserving the Park's wildlife and other resources. The Park's record of arrests and prosecution from 1999 to 2011 was used as secondary data while a four point Likert-scale questionnaire was used to obtain primary data. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the arrests data and the personal data of respondents. Inferential statistics were used for responses to the Likert statements. Farming was the main offence (67%) in 1999, the year with the highest recorded offence. 84% respondents opined that wild animals could only be conserved if their habitats were protected, while 91.1% believed that poor maintenance and management of protected areas could lead to loss of wildlife. Respondents' level of education significantly affected their attitude towards wildlife conservation (P = 0.021). Age significantly affected the respondents' orientation about poaching on wildlife (P= 0.035), and their perception about government's roles on wildlife conservation (P = 0.024). Wildlife conservation education and enlightenment programmes would likely help in sustainable wildlife harvesting. Park staff could be more committed to protecting the resources when they are catered for appropriately. Creation of buffer zone could reduce Park's encroachment rate.
In the wild, nonhuman primates' preferences for some food may not be quite clear due to the seasonality and utilization of fallback foods during periods of scarcity. Understanding the most preferred foods could aid schedules of serving them to captive primates. Against this background, the study was carried out to determine the food preference of captive mona monkeys offered foods consumed by their counterparts in the degraded and fragmented urban forest, biodiversity rich rainforest, and in a zoo. The feeding trials were conducted in the service area of the University of Lagos. Four adult monkeys (two males and two females) were offered weighed amounts of 13 different foods served in batches of five, using the cafeteria method. Each food type was offered separately in a food trough at 10:00 hrs each day. Left over was withdrawn and measured after 24 hours. Position of the food trough was changed every day. Water was provided ad libitum in a water trough. The difference between offered and left-over weights was regarded as intake. Food preference was determined from the coefficient of preference (COP), and a unitary value was considered preferred. In decreasing order of preference, the preferred foods that had COP ≥ 1 were Musa sapientum, Zea mays, and Solanum melongena. The mona monkey and other sympatric species held in captivity could be provided with these foods in addition to other foods that could meet their nutritional needs. Nutritional assays of these foods could provide clues to their being preferred above others. Dans la nature, les préférences des primates non humains pour certains aliments peuvent ne pas être tout à fait claires en raison de la saisonnalité et de l'utilisation des aliments de remplacement pendant les périodes de pénurie. Comprendre les aliments les plus préférés pourrait faciliter les horaires de les servir aux primates captifs. Dans ce contexte, l'étude a été menée pour estimer la préférence alimentaire des singes mona en captivité qui offraient des aliments consommés par leurs homologues dans la forêt urbaine dégradée et fragmentée, la forêt tropicale riche en biodiversité et dans un zoo. Les essais d'alimentation ont été menés dans l’aire de service de l'Université de Lagos. Quatre singes adultes (deux mâles et deux femelles) se sont vus offrir des quantités pesées de 13 aliments différents servis par lots de cinq, en utilisant la méthode de la cafétéria. Chaque type de nourriture était offert 184 séparément dans une auge à 10 h chaque jour. Le surplus a été prélevé et mesuré après 24 heures. La position de l'auge a été changée chaque jour. L'eau était fournie à volonté dans un bac à eau. La différence entre le poids offert et le poids restant a été considérée comme un apport. La préférence alimentaire a été déterminée à partir du coefficient de préférence (COP), et une valeur unitaire a été considérée comme préférée. Par ordre décroissant de préférence, les aliments préférés qui avaient un COP ≥ 1 étaient Musa sapientum, Zeamays et Solanummelongena. Le singe mona et d'autres espèces sympatriques gardées en captivité pourraient recevoir ces aliments en plus d'autres aliments qui pourraient répondre à leurs besoins nutritionnels. Les dosages nutritionnels de ces aliments pourraient fournir des indices sur leur préférence aux autres.
Contamination of Lekki lagoon by petrogenic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) has been widely reported. The study was aimed at investigating the bioaccumulation of PAH and BTEX in Malapterurus electricus collected from Lekki lagoon in Lagos, Nigeria. BTEX was analyzed in the intestine, water, and sediment samples using 8260B Agilent 7890B gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). While PAHs were tested in the same media using a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Histopathological analysis of the fish intestine was conducted using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains. Parasite intensity, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation activities were investigated in the fish. The parasitic infection detected in Malapterurus electricus was Electrotaenia malopteruri. The parasite showed weak and no depurative capacities for BTEX and PAH respectively. The decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in conjunction with an increase in Malondialdehyde (MDA) characterized relatively higher susceptibility among the male fish. Varieties of tissue injuries increased with the standard length of the fish groups. Results suggest that lengthier and uninfected M. electricus were more susceptible to PAH in Lekki lagoon than the shorter and infected ones. The study demonstrated a promising tendency of the enteric parasite, E. malopteruri to depurate chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, m+p-xylene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene from the intestine of its host fish, M. electricus, while PAHs were poorly mediated by the parasite.
Monkeys are potential sources of infectious diseases to humans. Mona monkeys frequently gain access to human dwellings within the University of Lagos campus. This study was conducted to assess the level of human-monkey interaction with a view to determining if such interaction will create an avenue for zoonotic disease transmission from monkeys to humans resident in this human-wildlife interface. Information on frequency and closeness of human -monkey interaction was gathered from 395 respondents using a semi-structured questionnaire and indepth interviews. These were used to determine respondents' attitude towards the monkeys as well as their knowledge on monkey related zoonoses. Responses from the questionnaire were entered into and analysed using EPI INFO TM version 188.8.131.52 statistical software. Categorical data were summarised as tables and bar chart. Chi Square, Fisher exact tests and binary logistic regression were used to test for significance and deduce relationships among variables. Statistical significance was determined at 95% Confidence interval. Most of the respondents (63.5%) were undergraduates; while 70.1% of all respondents were residents on campus. Only 19.8% and 6.6% of the respondents had close and risky contacts respectively, while 11.1% and 8.3% had negligible and minimal contacts respectively. Majority of the respondents (69.1%) had inadequate knowledge about monkey related zoonoses Only 39% were aware that monkeys could transmit disease to humans and 2% believed that monkeys could not transmit diseases to humans. Campus residents have significantly closer contacts with monkeys than visitors (p<0.05, OR=0.32). Residents were three times more likely to have had any form of contact with monkeys than non-residents. There was no significant difference between the frequency of risky human-monkey contacts among visitors and residents. The low level of awareness about zoonotic disease among the respondents could be ameliorated through public health awareness campaigns by health workers and conservationists.
This study was aimed at determining the concentration of pyrethroid in the surface water, sediment, Weyonia acuminata and Synodontis clarias fish in Lekki lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. In-situ physicochemical analysis of the surface water was conducted using a calibrated handheld multi-parameter probe (Horiba Checker Model U-10). Intestinal samples from infected and uninfected fish were analyzed for pyrethroid concentrations, microbial colonization, proteins (PRO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The histopathology of infected and uninfected intestinal tissues were analyzed using Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stains and examined under a binocular light microscope (Model 230485). A total of 39 out of 98 S. clarias fish were infected with cestode parasite, Wenyonia acuminate, amounting to 39% parasite prevalence. Among the tested pyrethroids, Cyfluthrin and Alpha –cypermethrin had significant sorption of 1.62 and 3.27 respectively from the aqueous phase to the bottom sediment of the lagoon. Pyrethroid concentration was in the order of sediment > parasite> water > intestine> liver. The cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL (low density lipids) in the parasite were higher than in the host fish (p<0.05). On the other hand, the fish hepatic protein, high density lipids (HDL) and glucose were higher than the levels in the parasites (p<0.05). There was a high prevalence of gut microbes (30 - 40%), which include Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus sp among individuals infected with gut Cestodes, Wenyonia sp compared with uninfected individual which had higher gut Staphylococcus sp., Klebsiella sp., and Proteus sp. (10- 40%). among the congeners of pyrethroids analyzed, Cyfluthrin > Alpha-Cyermethrin had significant sorption on the sediment, however unlike a benthopelagic fish, no pyrethroid was accumulated in the S. clarias from the sediment. The fish however accumulated Alpha-Cypermethrin from the aqueous phase. The parasite on the other hand accumulated Bathroid significantly from the surface water and bottom sediment which may be linked to the higher stress levels observed in the parasite than the host fish. The parasite in turn inflicted histological alterations on the host intestine, marked by moderate inflammation of mucosa, alteration of the villi microstructure, moderate stunting of the villous structure and moderate fibrosis of villous structure. The study demonstrated the efficiency of histopathological and microbial analysis in biomonitoring studies enteric parasites and early detection of pyrethroid toxicity respectively compared to bioaccumulation analysis.
Guard hairs of mammals are useful in identifying species. Morphological characteristics of the guard hairs were used to determine differences in the pelage of mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona) in Omo-Shasha-Oluwa Forest Reserves in South western Nigeria. Using standard procedures, five strands of guard hair from each location were observed under a light microscope attached with a digital camera for the determination of histological structures. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the hair were examined and data obtained directly from the microscope. Data on the cuticle, cortex and medullar dimensions (μm) of the hair were analysed descriptively and inferentially using SPSS Version 20 respectively. Variance analysis was used to compare the means of the quantitative parameters of the hair. Statistically significant means (P ≤ 0.05) were separated using LSD post hoc test. A continuous medulla pattern was common in all locations. Amorphous medulla was found in only Omo and Shasha monkeys. The longest scale length and width of 218.76 ± 60.29μm and 725.76 ± 155.91μm respectively were recorded in Omo Forest Reserve. Medullary diametre, index, and a fraction of monkeys in Omo and Shasha were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from that of Oluwa. Based on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the guard hair, the mona monkeys in Omo and Shasha had features that were similar. The findings can be useful in explaining the close proximities and interactions of this species in the three Reserves. The information can be used as a guide in conservation, forensic and other scientific researches.
The presence of trace metals in the sediment, water, and biota of the Epe lagoon has been recently linked to oil exploration and municipal perturbations around the lagoon. The study was aimed at assessing the concentrations and associated health risks of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Co and V in the water, sediment, and Gymnarchus niloticus of Epe lagoon and to evaluate the role of the enteric parasite Nilonema gymnarchi in bioaccumulation of the metals in the fish. The temperature, pH, redox potential, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), and salinity were determined in-situ using a handheld multi-parameter probe (Horiba Water Checker Model U-10). The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Co, and V were determined in the surface water, bottom sediment, Gymnarchus niloticus, and its enteric parasites, Nilonema gymnarchi in Epe lagoon using the Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (Philips model PU 9100). The bioaccumulation factors and target hazard quotients of the trace metals in the infected and uninfected fish were estimated and compared. The intestinal tissue sections of the infected and uninfected fish were examined using a binocular dissecting microscope (American Optical Corporation, Model 570) using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. Biochemical markers such as reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were determined in the liver of the infected and uninfected fish. The SOD level was higher in the uninfected fish than the infected ones supports the indications deduced from the bioaccumulation analysis. Strong positive correlations between SOD and most of the metals- Fe (0.916), Zn (0.919), Cu (0.896), and Ni (0.917) suggests that the metals may have inflicted more toxicity in the uninfected. The histopathological comparisons made between the uninfected and infected fish showed consistency with the outcomes of other comparisons made in this study. These evidence were marked by tissue alterations in the infected fish ranging from no observed changes to mild alterations, while the uninfected exhibited more severe tissue injuries such as hemorrhagic lesions, severe vascular congestion, edema, the increased connective tissue of the submucosa, and vascular congestion. The condition factors of the infected (0.252) and uninfected (0.268) fish indicated slenderness and unfitness possibly due to environmental stressors such as trace metals. The parasitized fish showing better-coping potentials than the uninfected, coupled with the significant bioaccumulation interferences exhibited by the parasite Nilonema gymnarchi is an indication that the parasites may be a good metal sequestration agent for the fish and can be used to forestall the significant health hazard quotient posed by the current level of iron and the synergy of all metals analyzed in the lagoon.
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