Previous studies demonstrated methane generation in aerobic cells. Our aims were to investigate the methanogenic features of sodium azide (NaN(3))-induced chemical hypoxia in the whole animal and to study the effects of l-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC) on endogenous methane production and inflammatory events as indicators of a NaN(3)-elicited mitochondrial dysfunction. Group 1 of Sprague-Dawley rats served as the sham-operated control; in group 2, the animals were treated with NaN(3) (14 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) sc) for 8 days. In group 3, the chronic NaN(3) administration was supplemented with daily oral GPC treatment. Group 4 served as an oral antibiotic-treated control (rifaximin, 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) targeting the intestinal bacterial flora, while group 5 received this antibiotic in parallel with NaN(3) treatment. The whole body methane production of the rats was measured by means of a newly developed method based on photoacoustic spectroscopy, the microcirculation of the liver was observed by intravital videomicroscopy, and structural changes were assessed via in vivo fluorescent confocal laser-scanning microscopy. NaN(3) administration induced a significant inflammatory reaction and methane generation independently of the methanogenic flora. After 8 days, the hepatic microcirculation was disturbed and the ATP content was decreased, without major structural damage. Methane generation, the hepatic microcirculatory changes, and the increased tissue myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase activities were reduced by GPC treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that methane production in mammals is connected with hypoxic events associated with a mitochondrial dysfunction. GPC is protective against the inflammatory consequences of a hypoxic reaction that might involve cellular or mitochondrial methane generation.
BackgroundMethanogenesis can indicate the fermentation activity of the gastrointestinal anaerobic flora. Methane also has a demonstrated anti-inflammatory potential. We hypothesized that enriched methane inhalation can influence the respiratory activity of the liver mitochondria after an ischemia-reperfusion (IR) challenge.MethodsThe activity of oxidative phosphorylation system complexes was determined after in vitro methane treatment of intact liver mitochondria. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to standardized 60-min warm hepatic ischemia inhaled normoxic air (n = 6) or normoxic air containing 2.2% methane, from 50 min of ischemia and throughout the 60-min reperfusion period (n = 6). Measurement data were compared with those on sham-operated animals (n = 6 each). Liver biopsy samples were subjected to high-resolution respirometry; whole-blood superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production was measured; hepatocyte apoptosis was detected with TUNEL staining and in vivo fluorescence laser scanning microscopy.ResultsSignificantly decreased complex II-linked basal respiration was found in the normoxic IR group at 55 min of ischemia and a lower respiratory capacity (~60%) and after 5 min of reperfusion. Methane inhalation preserved the maximal respiratory capacity at 55 min of ischemia and significantly improved the basal respiration during the first 30 min of reperfusion. The IR-induced cytochrome c activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and hepatocyte apoptosis were also significantly reduced.ConclusionsThe normoxic IR injury was accompanied by significant functional damage of the inner mitochondrial membrane, increased cytochrome c activity, enhanced ROS production and apoptosis. An elevated methane intake confers significant protection against mitochondrial dysfunction and reduces the oxidative damage of the hepatocytes.
Aerobic methane generation was demonstrated earlier in plants and eukaryotes under various stress conditions. Our aims were to develop a real-time and noninvasive detection system for monitoring the methane production of small animals and humans with our without exposure to various treatments. A near-infrared diode laser technique was employed with photoacoustic spectroscopy to monitor a methane-containing atmosphere online. The whole-body methane generation of anesthetized mice and rats was determined under baseline conditions and following reduction of the intestinal methanogenic flora or after lipopolysaccharide administration. Single-breath methane analyses were also carried out in a cross-sectional clinical study in order to obtain comparative human data. The whole-body methane production of mice was significantly decreased after antibiotic treatment (M: 1.71 ppm cm(-2) 10(3); p25: 1.5 ppm cm(-2) 10(3); p75: 2.11 ppm cm(-2) 10(3)) and increased significantly in endotoxemia (M: 4.53 ppm cm(-2) 10(3); p25: 4.37 ppm cm(-2) 10(3); p75: 5.38 ppm cm(-2) 10(3)), while no difference was observed between the rat groups. The methane content of the exhaled breath in humans was found to be between 0 and 37 ppm. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is a reliable tool with which to monitor the in vivo dynamics of stress-induced methane production in laboratory animals, even in a very low concentration range.
Placental insufficiency and adipose tissue dysregulation are postulated to play key roles in the pathophysiology of both pre-eclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A dysfunctional release of deleterious signaling motifs can offset an increase in circulating oxidative stressors, pro-inflammatory factors and various cytokines. It has been previously postulated that endothelial dysfunction, instigated by signaling from endocrine organs such as the placenta and adipose tissue, may be a key mediator of the vasculopathy that is evident in both adverse obstetric complications. These signaling pathways also have significant effects on long term maternal cardiometabolic health outcomes, specifically cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type II diabetes. Recent studies have noted that both PE and GDM are strongly associated with lower maternal flow-mediated dilation, however the exact pathways which link endothelial dysfunction to clinical outcomes in these complications remains in question. The current diagnostic regimen for both PE and GDM lacks specificity and consistency in relation to clinical guidelines. Furthermore, current therapeutic options rely largely on clinical symptom control such as antihypertensives and insulin therapy, rather than that of early intervention or prophylaxis. A better understanding of the pathogenic origin of these obstetric complications will allow for more targeted therapeutic interventions. In this review we will explore the complex signaling relationship between the placenta and adipose tissue in PE and GDM and investigate how these intricate pathways affect maternal endothelial function and, hence, play a role in acute pathophysiology and the development of future chronic maternal health outcomes.
Mammalian methanogenesis is widely considered to be an exclusive sign of anaerobic microbial activity in the gastrointestinal tract. This commonly held view was challenged, however, when in vitro and in vivo investigations demonstrated the possibility of nonmicrobial methane formation in aerobic organisms, in plants and animals. The aim of this review is to discuss the available literature data on the biological role of methane. When we evaluate the significance of methane generation in the mammalian physiology, the question may be examined: is it a gas mediator? Overall the data do not fully support the gasotransmitter concept, but they do support the notion that methane liberation may be linked to redox regulation and may be connected with hypoxic events leading to, or associated with a mitochondrial dysfunction. In this respect, the available information suggests that hypoxia-induced methane generation may be a necessary phenomenon of aerobic life, and perhaps a surviving evolutionary trait in the eukaryote cell.
Exhaled methane concentration measurements are extensively used in medical investigation of certain gastrointestinal conditions. However, the dynamics of endogenous methane release is largely unknown. Breath methane profiles during ergometer tests were measured by means of a photoacoustic spectroscopy based sensor. Five methane-producing volunteers (with exhaled methane level being at least 1 ppm higher than room air) were measured. The experimental protocol consisted of 5 min rest--15 min pedalling (at a workload of 75 W)--5 min rest. In addition, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were determined and compared to the estimated alveolar methane concentration. The alveolar breath methane level decreased considerably, by a factor of 3-4 within 1.5 min, while the estimated ventilation-perfusion ratio increased by a factor of 2-3. Mean pre-exercise and exercise methane concentrations were 11.4 ppm (SD:7.3) and 2.8 ppm (SD:1.9), respectively. The changes can be described by the high sensitivity of exhaled methane to ventilation-perfusion ratio and are in line with the Farhi equation.
These data demonstrate the effectiveness of GPC therapies and provide indirect evidence that the anti-inflammatory effects of PC could be linked to a reaction involving the polar part of the molecule.
AIMTo compare the effects of the four most commonly used preservation solutions on the outcome of liver transplantations.METHODSA systematic literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases up to January 31st, 2017. The inclusion criteria were comparative, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for deceased donor liver (DDL) allografts with adult and pediatric donors using the gold standard University of Wisconsin (UW) solution or histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), Celsior (CS) and Institut Georges Lopez (IGL-1) solutions. Fifteen RCTs (1830 livers) were included; the primary outcomes were primary non-function (PNF) and one-year post-transplant graft survival (OGS-1).RESULTSAll trials were homogenous with respect to donor and recipient characteristics. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of PNF with the use of UW, HTK, CS and IGL-1 (RR = 0.02, 95%CI: 0.01-0.03, P = 0.356). Comparing OGS-1 also failed to reveal any difference between UW, HTK, CS and IGL-1 (RR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.80-0.80, P = 0.369). Two trials demonstrated higher PNF levels for UW in comparison with the HTK group, and individual studies described higher rates of biliary complications where HTK and CS were used compared to the UW and IGL-1 solutions. However, the meta-analysis of the data did not prove a statistically significant difference: the UW, CS, HTK and IGL-1 solutions were associated with nearly equivalent outcomes.CONCLUSIONAlternative solutions for UW yield the same degree of safety and effectiveness for the preservation of DDLs, but further well-designed clinical trials are warranted.
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