SummaryBrycon gouldingi is an endemic species from Tocantins-Araguaia basin, used as a food source by riverine communities and relevant to aquaculture. Information about the initial morphology of B. gouldingi, a recently described species, is absent. In the present study, we analysed the fertilization and the embryonic development of this species based on light and scanning electron microscopy. After collection of adult specimens in Mortes River -Mato Grosso, Brazil, adaptation to captivity and induced spawning at Buriti Fishculture, Nova Mutum -Mato Grosso, Brazil, in December 2007 and January 2008, samples were collected at pre-defined periods from egg extrusion up to larval hatching, which occurred at 13.9 ± 0.06 h post-fertilization (hpf) in average. At the moment of extrusion, the eggs were slightly ovoid bearing a single micropyle per oocyte with a funnel-shaped micropyle canal and vestibule covered with longitudinal folds, typical of the genus Brycon. The embryonic development of B. gouldingi was characterized by six stages with distinct features: zygote (from fertilization up to formation of egg-cell); cleavage (cell divisions resulting in blastomeres, including the morula phase); blastula (several embryonic cells in a cup shape, without distinction of cell boundaries); gastrula (cell movement); histogenesis/organogenesis (formation of tissues and organs); and hatching (larval chorion rupture). Right after hatching, the larvae presented neither swimming abilities nor visual accuracy, and the digestive trait was undifferentiated. The present study is the first report on biological features of embryogenesis in B. gouldingi, providing relevant information to several approaches, mainly related to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and captive rearing of this new Brycon species.
Adult specimens of piabanha Brycon gouldingi were collected from Rio das Mortes (Mato Grosso, Brazil), adapted to captivity and induced to spawn at Buriti Fisheries (Nova Mutum, MT, Brazil). The early developmental stages of B. gouldingi were then characterized. Samples were collected at pre-determined times from oocyte extrusion to total yolk absorption. Oocyte diameter, total larval length (LT ) and yolk-sac volume were measured. The mean ± s.d. duration of embryo developmental of B. gouldingi was 13·90 ± 0·06 h at 26·40 ± 1·13° C. The mean ± s.d. oocyte diameter was 1·13 ± 0·06 mm with 54% of oocytes ranging from 1·11 to 1·20 mm. Seven stages characterized the early developmental phase of this species: zygote, cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, histogenesis-organogenesis and hatching, with unique features related to each stage. At hatching, the larvae measured 3·40 ± 0·07 mm, presented an elongated shape with yolk-sac volume of 0·46 ± 0·08 µl, non-pigmented eyes and exhibited swimming ability. When the yolk was completely absorbed at 55 h post-hatch, mean ± larval LT was 6·68 ± 0·65 mm, the eyes were highly pigmented and the teeth were visible. These are the first reported findings on the initial developmental stages of B. gouldingi and could be used to improve captive breeding management and conservation practices.
Based on the economic and ecological relevance of Brycon amazonicus, the goal of this work was to describe the diameter of oocytes and eggs of this species, as well as the chronological embryonic development. The material was provided by Buriti fish farm, Nova Mutum - MT, Brazil. Samples of both oocytes and eggs were obtained from extrusion to hatching. The material was fixed and measured under stereomicroscope, and the samples were divided for light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. At extrusion, the oocytes were bluish green. The frequency distribution of oocytes revealed that 87.7% of them ranged from 1.11-1.30 mm in diameter. During incubation, the total diameter of the eggs increased from 1.22 ± 0.04 mm to 3.06 ± 0.46 mm in the first 60 min post fertilization (PF), and growth ceased at 180 min PF. Between 10-30 s PF, most eggs were fertilized and fertilization cones were observed from 10 s onwards after gamete activation. The main fertilization events took place asynchronically and spermatozoa were visualized in the micropyle vestibule up to 90 s PF. The first cell was formed in the centre of the blastodisc 20 min PF. The morula stage was identified 2 h PF and, 3 h later, 70% of the yolk was covered by the blastoderm; the blastopore was almost entirely closed at 6 h PF. The cephalic and caudal regions of the embryo could be defined 8 h PF and hatching occurred after 13 h of embryonic development. The larvae hatched with undifferentiated organic systems and with a large yolk sac, free from swimming abilities or visual acuity.
The larval ultrastructure of Brycon gouldingi related to swimming and feeding from hatching to total yolk absorption is described from scanning electron micrographs. Newly hatched larvae (time zero) had no mouth opening, undefined optic vesicles, an olfactory plate visible as a shallow depression, rudimentary gill arches, neural groove, embryonic fin and a primary neuromast in the dorsal region of the head. At the time of yolk absorption, 55 h post hatching, the larvae presented an optic vesicle comprising an optic cup and crystalline lens; a mouth with tongue, tapered teeth and taste buds; a ciliated olfactory cavity; branched gill arches; filled neural groove signalling central nervous system development; caudal, pectoral, dorsal and anal fins; and neuromasts distributed throughout the head and body. These characters are related to prey capture and swimming ability, key aspects of survival during the larval stage. The results of this study provide important information for exploitation and aquaculture of B. gouldingi.
Este estudo foi realizado para descrever o efeito da reversão sexual de linhagens de tilápia sobre as taxas de sobrevivência, o crescimento e o percentual de machos fenotípicos em condições ambientais variáveis. Foram utilizadas duas linhagens de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia-do-nilo comum e tailandesa) e uma híbrida Oreochromis sp (vermelha), que receberam o hormônio masculinizante 17-α-metiltestosterona incorporado à ração (60 mg/kg) durante os primeiros 30 dias de vida. Aos 90 dias de idade, a taxa de sobrevivência da tilápia-do-nilo comum superou a da tilápia tailandesa em 39,00% e da tilápia vermelha em 22,70%, enquanto a taxa instantânea de crescimento foi similar nas linhagens comum e tailandesa e significativamente inferior na linhagem vermelha. O percentual de machos, de acordo com o exame de gônadas, decresceu na seguinte ordem: tilápia-do-nilo comum, tailandesa e vermelha. Em situações de oscilação de temperatura, a linhagem comum tem maior desempenho produtivo, mas são necessários estudos para comprovação da pureza genética e análise do manejo reprodutivo de linhagens de tilápia.
In the present work we describe the larval development of Brycon amazonicus, with emphasis on structures linked to swimming, respiration and feeding. We monitored from larval hatching (13 h post‐fertilization) to juvenile stage. Formation of the oral cavity and differentiation of gill arches began within 4 h post‐hatching (hph) and within 11 hph the primordium of the pectoral fin appeared. At 25 hph, the head was in a rectilinear position with a terminal mouth, when the onset of tooth formation appeared. At 35 hph, gill arches were covered by the operculum and branchiostegal membrane and cusps of teeth pierced the epithelium of the premaxilla and anterior dentary region. Sharp teeth were observed in the maxilla at 171 hph and the pelvic fin primordium appeared at 243 hph, with taste buds on the tongue and the roof of the buccopharyngeal cavity. At 579 hph, all structures related to swimming and food capture were formed. Exogenous feeding of the larvae started at 29 hph, before the endogenous reserves were used up and the development of efficient swimming ability, reflecting the species' need to increasingly specialize on prey capture.
SummaryIn the present study, the morphological development of the Brycon amazonicus digestive tract is described to provide basic knowledge for nutritional studies and, therefore, increase the survival of this species during larviculture. Samples were collected from hatching up to 25 days of age, measured, processed and observed under a stereomicroscope and light microscopy. Newly hatched larvae presented their digestive tract as a straight tube, dorsal to the yolk sac, lined with a single layer of undifferentiated cells. At 24 h post-hatching (hPH), the buccopharyngeal cavity was open, but the posterior region of the digestive tube remained closed. At 25 hPH, the digestive tube was completely open and could be divided into buccopharyngeal cavity, oesophagus and intestine. At 35 hPH, the intestine presented a dilatation in the proximal region, which had the function of storing food. Differentiation of the stomach started at 83 hPH, and mucous cells were observed in the epithelium. These cells are important in the production of mucus, whose function is to protect the organ against acidity, although the gastric glands began developing only from 171 hPH, when three stomach regions were observed: cardiac, fundic and pyloric. The gastric glands were observed in the cardiac region, indicating that this organ already had digestive functionality. From 243 hPH, the absorption and assimilation of nutrients were already possible but, only from 412 hPH, the digestive tract was completely developed and functional.
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