UVC irradiation is a potential new method for pathogen reduction in PCs. The data obtained until now justify further development of this process.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a frequent cause of transfusion-associated morbidity and mortality. Severe TRALI is often due to antibodies in blood components directed against the human neutrophil alloantigen-3a (HNA-3a). We show here that the HNA-3a antigen arises from a nucleotide polymorphism in the choline transporter-like protein-2 gene (SLC44A2), with the resulting variation at amino acid position 154 determining the reactivity of the protein with HNA-3a-specific antibodies; the variant with an arginine at this position, rather than a glutamine, constitutes the HNA-3a antigen. The molecular identification of this antigen should facilitate the development of assays for blood donor screening to lower the risk of TRALI.
Glycolysis is one of the most important metabolic pathways in heterotrophic organisms. Several genes encoding glycolytic enzymes are essential in many bacteria even under conditions when neither glycolytic nor gluconeogenic activities are required. In this study, a screening for in vivo interaction partners of glycolytic enzymes of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis was used to provide a rationale for essentiality of glycolytic enzymes. Glycolytic enzymes proved to be in close contact with several other proteins, among them a high proportion of essential proteins. Among these essential interaction partners, other glycolytic enzymes were most prominent. Two-hybrid studies confirmed interactions of phosphofructokinase with phosphoglyceromutase and enolase. Such a complex of glycolytic enzymes might allow direct substrate channeling of glycolytic intermediates. Moreover we found associations of glycolytic enzymes with several proteins known or suspected to be involved in RNA processing and degradation. One of these proteins, Rny (YmdA), which has so far not been functionally characterized, is required for the processing of the mRNA of the glycolytic gapA operon. Two-hybrid analyses confirmed the interactions between the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase and enolase and the enzymes involved in RNA processing, RNase J1, Rny, and polynucleotide phosphorylase. Moreover RNase J1 interacts with its homologue RNase J2. We suggest that this complex of mRNA processing and glycolytic enzymes is the B. subtilis equivalent of the RNA degradosome. Our findings suggest that the functional interaction of glycolytic enzymes with essential proteins may be the reason why they are indispensable. Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway that appeared early in the evolution of life (1). Major functions of the glycolytic pathway are the generation of precursors for anabolic reactions and the conservation of energy that is needed to fuel all other cellular processes. The glycolytic pathway is conventionally divided into two parts: (i) the upper part, also referred to as the preparatory phase of glycolysis because the reactions of this part consume energy to convert the incoming sugars to triose phosphates, and (ii), the lower part or payoff phase that is characterized by the net gain of energy and the formation of reduction equivalents. Although glycolysis is highly conserved from archaea and bacteria to man not all organisms use this pathway for the oxidization of glucose. Escherichia coli is able to oxidize glucose via glycolysis, but the Entner-Doudoroff and the pentose phosphate pathways may replace the preparatory phase. In contrast to E. coli, the Entner-Doudoroff pathway is not present in Bacillus subtilis (2). Interestingly the enzymes of the upper glycolytic part seem to be completely absent in many archaea (3, 4). These few examples show that there is a high plasticity in how archaea and bacteria can feed glucose into the triose phosphate part of glycolysis. This plasticity is in good agreement with the observation that...
BackgroundNon-cellular blood circulating microRNAs (plasma miRNAs) represent a promising source for the development of prognostic and diagnostic tools owing to their minimally invasive sampling, high stability, and simple quantification by standard techniques such as RT-qPCR. So far, the majority of association studies involving plasma miRNAs were disease-specific case-control analyses. In contrast, in the present study, plasma miRNAs were analysed in a sample of 372 individuals from a population-based cohort study, the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).MethodsQuantification of miRNA levels was performed by RT-qPCR using the Exiqon Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA PCR Panel V3.M covering 179 different miRNAs. Of these, 155 were included in our analyses after quality-control. Associations between plasma miRNAs and the phenotypes age, body mass index (BMI), and sex were assessed via a two-step linear regression approach per miRNA. The first step regressed out the technical parameters and the second step determined the remaining associations between the respective plasma miRNA and the phenotypes of interest.ResultsAfter regressing out technical parameters and adjusting for the respective other two phenotypes, 7, 15, and 35 plasma miRNAs were significantly (q < 0.05) associated with age, BMI, and sex, respectively. Additional adjustment for the blood cell parameters identified 12 and 19 miRNAs to be significantly associated with age and BMI, respectively. Most of the BMI-associated miRNAs likely originate from liver. Sex-associated differences in miRNA levels were largely determined by differences in blood cell parameters. Thus, only 7 as compared to originally 35 sex-associated miRNAs displayed sex-specific differences after adjustment for blood cell parameters.ConclusionsThese findings emphasize that circulating miRNAs are strongly impacted by age, BMI, and sex. Hence, these parameters should be considered as covariates in association studies based on plasma miRNA levels. The established experimental and computational workflow can now be used in future screening studies to determine associations of plasma miRNAs with defined disease phenotypes.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12920-015-0136-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
DIGE is a tool for comprehensively assessing the impact of storage on the global proteome profile of therapeutic PCs. Most of the changes detected are in high-abundance PLT proteins.
Label free proteomic analysis of whole saliva is a powerful tool to characterize the periodontal disease status and differentiate between healthy and periodontally diseased subjects.
SummaryThe growth hormone/insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) axis can be manipulated in animal models to promote longevity, and IGF‐related proteins including IGF‐I and IGF‐binding protein‐3 (IGFBP‐3) have also been implicated in risk of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Through genomewide association study of up to 30 884 adults of European ancestry from 21 studies, we confirmed and extended the list of previously identified loci associated with circulating IGF‐I and IGFBP‐3 concentrations (IGF1, IGFBP3,GCKR,TNS3, GHSR, FOXO3, ASXL2, NUBP2/IGFALS, SORCS2, and CELSR2). Significant sex interactions, which were characterized by different genotype–phenotype associations between men and women, were found only for associations of IGFBP‐3 concentrations with SNPs at the loci IGFBP3 and SORCS2. Analyses of SNPs, gene expression, and protein levels suggested that interplay between IGFBP3 and genes within the NUBP2 locus (IGFALS and HAGH) may affect circulating IGF‐I and IGFBP‐3 concentrations. The IGF‐I‐decreasing allele of SNP rs934073, which is an eQTL of ASXL2, was associated with lower adiposity and higher likelihood of survival beyond 90 years. The known longevity‐associated variant rs2153960 (FOXO3) was observed to be a genomewide significant SNP for IGF‐I concentrations. Bioinformatics analysis suggested enrichment of putative regulatory elements among these IGF‐I‐ and IGFBP‐3‐associated loci, particularly of rs646776 at CELSR2. In conclusion, this study identified several loci associated with circulating IGF‐I and IGFBP‐3 concentrations and provides clues to the potential role of the IGF axis in mediating effects of known (FOXO3) and novel (ASXL2) longevity‐associated loci.
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