Proximate composition, physical and chemical analysis of the pulp, kernel and oils of Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. were investigated. The macauba pulp and the kernel represented 49 and 6.25% of the mass of the whole fruit, respectively. The main components present in the pulp and kernel are lipids (23.62 and 46.96%) and fibers (13.89 and 15.81%). Furthermore, the mineral analysis showed that the kernel had more micronutrients than pulp, principally Cu, Mn and Zn. The influence of extraction by pressing and Soxhlet extractor in different solvents regarding the quality and yield of the oils was evaluated. The highest yield in oil extraction was obtained by Soxhlet method, influenced by the type of solvent and part of macauba's fruit. For pulp, the better solvent is ethanol and ethanol 95%, and for kernel is ethanol, ethanol 95%, hexane and ethyl either. The analysis of the composition of fatty acids in the oil from the pulp and kernel showed that the monounsaturated fatty acids were predominant in the pulp oil, specially the oleic acid (C 18:1), and saturated fatty acids in the kernel oil, principally the lauric acid (C 12:0).
The influence of agronomic variables (light intensity, age of leaves, and fertilization type) on the content of macronutrients and micronutrients (potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, and copper) of tea leaves was assessed by acid digestion, followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The thermal behavior of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis) was also studied in this work. Samples of mate (Ilex paraguariensis) were collected in an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Erva-Mate Barão Commerce and Industry LTD (Brazil). The results showed that the mineral content in mate is affected by the agronomic variables investigated. In general, the content of mineral compounds analyzed is higher for younger leaves and for plants cultivated in shadow. Thermal analysis of samples indicated a similar behavior, with three typical steps of decomposition: loss of water, degradation of low-molecular weight compounds, and degradation of residual materials.
RESUMOO presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797) na cultura do milho. Os experimentos foram instalados, nos anos A. indica (extrato aquoso 5%), e óleo a 2%, M. azedarach (extrato aquoso 5%), Trichilia pallida Sw. (extrato aquoso 5%). As avaliações, porcentagem de infestação da lagarta-do-cartucho por parcela, foram efetuadas aos três, sete e dez dias após a pulverização dos extratos. Conclui-se que extratos aquosos das plantas A. indica 2%, T.pallida 5%, Q. amara 2% e M. azedarach 2% e 5% e óleo de A. indica 1% e 2% com adição de tenso ativo não iônico, não possuem eficiência necessária como único método de controle da largarta-do-cartucho S. frugiperda em condições de campo. Os produtos começam a afetar o desenvolvimento da lagarta após alguns dias da ingestão das folhas pulverizadas, observado na avaliação efetuada aos sete dias após a aplicação dos extratos.Termos para indexação: Spodoptera frugiperda, controle de pragas, inseticidas vegetais. ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to study the efficiency of vegetable pesticides in the control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797) in corn culture. The experiments were installed, in the years of 2002 and 2004, with the spraying of the vegetable products in five treatments, and four repetitions. In the year of 2002 the tested products were: Azadirachta indica A. Juss (aqueous extract 2%), and oil at 1%; Melia azedarach L. (aqueous extract 2%); Quassia amara L. (aqueous extract 2%); nim oil, Azadirachta indica 1 and 2%. In the year of 2004 the tested products were: A. indica (aqueous extract 5%), and oil at 2%, M. azedarach (aqueous extract 5%), Trichilia pallida Sw. (aqueous extract 5%). The evaluations like percentage of infestation of the fall armyworm per plot, were made three, seven and ten days after the extracts application respectively. It was possible to verify that aqueous extracts of the plants A. indica 2%, T. pallida 5%, Q. amara 2% and M. azedarach 2% and 5% and A. indica oil 1% and 2% with addition of non ionic active tense, don t possess necessary efficiency as the only control method of the fall armyworm S. frugiperda in field conditions. The products begin to affect the development of fall armyworms some days after the ingestion of the powdered leaves, observed in the seven days after the extracts application. INTRODUÇÃODe existência milenar, o milho representa um dos principais cereais em todo mundo e cultivados em pequenas, médias e grandes propriedades. No Brasil é considerada cultura de expressão nacional, de importância social e econômica, presente de norte a sul do País.São utilizados, durante o desenvolvimento da cultura, insumos sintéticos como pesticidas que além de aumentar os custos de produção, poluem o ambiente e deixam resíduos nos alimentos. O controle de pragas é uma das atividades de importância econômica que deve ser enquadrada para a obtenção de maiores rendimentos.A lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797) (Le...
The use of eosin methylene blue according to Giemsa as photosensitizer is presented for the first time in this paper. The present study evaluated the potential application of chlorophyllin sodium copper salt (CuChlNa) and eosin methylene blue according to Giemsa (EMB) as antimicrobial photosensitizers (aPS) for photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (gram-negative) bacteria. The experiments were performed using S. aureus stain ATCC 25923 and E. coli ATCC 25922 in which five aPS concentrations (0.0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 μM for S. aureus and 0.0, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, and 50.0 μM for E. coli) were prepared and added in 2 mL of a saline solution containing the bacterial inoculum. After aPS incubation, the samples were divided into two groups, one kept in the dark and another submitted to the illumination. Then, the bacterial inactivation was determined 18 h after the incubation at 37 °C by counting the colony-forming units (CFU). The results revealed that both EMB and CuChlNa can be used as aPS for the photoinactivation of S. aureus, while only EMB was able to photoinactivate E. coli. Nevertheless, a more complex experimental setup was needed for photoinactivation of E. coli. The data showed that EMB and CuChlNa presented similar photoinactivation effects on S. aureus, in which bacterial growth was completely inhibited at photosensitizer (PS) concentrations over 5 μM, when samples were previously incubated for 30 min and irradiated by a light dose of 30 J cm as a result of an illumination of 1 h at 8.3 mW cm by using a red light at 625 nm with a 1 cm beam diameter and output power of 6.5 mW. In the case of E. coli, bacterial growth was completely inhibited only when combining a PS incubation period of 120 min with concentrations over 20 μM.
O baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) como alternativa de sustentabilidade em área de fragmento florestal do Cerrado, no Mato Grosso do Sul The baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) as alternative for sustainability in the area of Cerrado forest fragment in the Mato Grosso South Le baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) comme alternative pour la durabilité dans le domaine du fragment Cerrado, du Mato Grosso do Sul El baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.) como alternativa para la sostenibilidad en el ámbito Cerrado del fragmento en el Mato Grosso do Sul
Dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus are epidemics in Brazil that are transmitted by mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus. The liquid from shells of cashew nuts is attractive for its important biological and therapeutic activities, which include toxicity to mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. The present study evaluated the effects of a mixture of surfactants from natural cashew nutshell liquid and castor oil (named TaLCC-20) on the mortality of larvae and on the reproductive performance, embryonic and fetal development and genetic stability of Swiss mice. A total of 400 Ae. aegypti larvae (third larval stage) were treated with TaLCC-20 concentrations of 0.05 mg/L, 0.5 mg/L, or 5 mg/L (ppm). Twenty pregnant female mice were also orally administered TaLCC-20 at doses of 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), and 10 animals were given only drinking water at 0.1 mL/10 g b.w. (orally). The results of a larvicide test demonstrated that 5 mg/mL TaLCC-20 killed 100% of larvae within three hours, which is comparable to the gold standard indicated by the Ministry of Health. Overall, these results show that TaLCC-20 is an efficient larvicide that does not induce genetic damage. In addition, changes in reproductive performance and embryo-fetal development appear positive, and the formulation is cost effective. Therefore, TaLCC-20 is an important product in the exploration of natural larvicides and can assist in fighting mosquitos as vectors for dengue fever, chikungunya fever and Zika virus, which are emerging/re-emerging and require proper management to ensure minimal harm to the human population. Therefore, TaLCC-20 can be considered a key alternative to commercial products, which are effective yet toxigenic.
O presente trabalho trata da preparação e caracterização de membranas de quitosana porosas e densas, que possuem diversas aplicações tecnológicas. Para tanto, foram utilizadas as técnicas de microscopia (microscopia eletrônica de varredura - MEV - e microscopia de força atômica -MFA), titulação potenciométrica e espectroscopia no infravermelho (FTIR-ATR). A síntese das estruturas foi realizada através da secagem total ou parcial de uma solução acética de quitosana a 2,5% (w/w) seguida de coagulação em meio alcalino. Glutaraldeído foi utilizado para modificar quimicamente as membranas, tornando-as mais hidrofóbicas. A extensão deste processo pôde ser observada por FTIR-ATR, utilizando-se um plano fatorial onde foram variados o tempo de fixação e a concentração de glutaraldeído na solução de tratamento.
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