Intrinsic or acquired resistance to the HER2-targeted therapy trastuzumab is a clinical concern in the treatment of patients with HER2-over-expressing metastatic breast cancers. We demonstrate here that multiple models of intrinsic and acquired resistance exhibit increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Kinase inhibition of p38 rescued trastuzumab sensitivity in cells with acquired resistance. In addition, knockdown of p38 increased sensitivity to trastuzumab in an intrinsically resistant cell line. We previously reported that expression of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is increased in trastuzumab-resistant HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. In this study, we found that exogenous GDF15 or stable overexpression of GDF15 stimulated p38 phosphorylation in HER2-positive cells, suggesting a possible mechanism by which p38 is activated in resistant cells. GDF15 stable clones showed significantly increased invasiveness, which was rescued by p38 kinase inhibition, suggesting that p38 plays a role in the pro-invasive phenotype conferred by GDF15. Importantly, immunohistochemical analysis of a breast tumor tissue array indicated a significant (p=0.0053) correlation between HER2 and phosphorylated p38 specifically in GDF15-positive tissues. Our results suggest that p38 signaling drives trastuzumab resistance and invasiveness in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Upstream growth factor signals that have previously been implicated in trastuzumab resistance, such as GDF15, may contribute to the increased phosphorylation of p38 found in resistant cells.
El presente trabajo estudia la dieta de una población de Leptodactylus ocellatus de los Humedales de Zonda, San Juan, al oeste de Argentina. Se analizaron 35 estómagos, las presas fueron clasificadas y los individuos se midieron en ancho y largo para calcular su volumen con la fórmula de la esfera elipsoide; además, se estimó la frecuencia de ocurrencia y abundancia. Se calcularon índices de diversidad, de similitud, amplitud de nicho e importancia relativa (IRI). Los presas mas importantes fueron: Hymenoptera, Anura, Coleoptera. Las presas con mayor porcentaje de presencia fueron los Hymenoptera Formicidae que representaron el 22,4%. No se encontró una relación significativa entre el ancho de la boca del depredador y el tamaño medio de la presa. La dieta observada en ambos sexos resultó similar.
Male infertility is a disorder of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. The presence of low-motile or immotile spermatozoa is one of many causes of infertility; however, this observation provides little or no information regarding the pathogenesis of the malfunction. Good sperm motility depends on correct assembly of the sperm tail in the testis and efficient maturation during epididymal transit. Thiols of flagellar proteins, such as outer dense fibre protein 1 (ODF1), are oxidised to form disulfides during epididymal transit and the spermatozoa become motile. This study was designed to determine how oxidative changes in protein thiol status affect progressive motility in human spermatozoa. Monobromobimane (mBBr) was used as a specific thiol marker and disruptor of sperm progressive motility. When mBBr was blocked by dithiothreitol it did not promote motility changes. The analysis of mBBr-treated spermatozoa revealed a reduction of progressive motility and an increased number of spermatozoa with non-progressive motility without affecting ATP production. Laser confocal microscopy and western blot analysis showed that one of the mBBr-positive proteins reacted with an antibody to ODF1. Monobromobimane fluorescence intensity of the sperm tail was lower in normozoospermic than asthenozoospermic men, suggesting that thiol oxidation in spermatozoa of asthenozoospermic men is incomplete. Our findings indicate that mBBr affects the thiol status of ODF1 in human spermatozoa and interferes with progressive motility.
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